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Table 2 Association between the risk of head and neck cancer, globally and by subsite, and exposure to leather dust assessed using a job-exposure matrix. Results from the general questionnaire

From: Head and neck cancer and occupational exposure to leather dust: results from the ICARE study, a French case-control study

  Controls HNC overall Oral cavity Oropharynx Hypopharynx Oral cavity, pharynx unspecified Larynx
n n ORa (95% CI) n ORa (95% CI) n ORa (95% CI) n ORa (95% CI) n ORa (95% CI) n ORa (95% CI)
Exposure to leather dust
 Never exposed b 3476 2087 reference 433 reference 643 reference 386 reference 141 reference 484 reference
 Ever exposed c 75 57 0.99 (0.62, 1.56) 9 0.71 (0.32, 1.58) 12 0.64 (0.31, 1.29) 12 1.24 (0.61, 2.52) 5 1.47 (0.54, 3.99) 19 1.40 (0.77, 2.56)
Maximum probability of exposure (%)
 ≤ 50 32 26 1.17 (0.59, 2.31) 3 0.46 (0.10, 2.08) 8 1.21 (0.49, 2.94) 3 0.85 (0.23, 3.07) 3 2.36 (0.63, 8.78) 9 1.60 (0.66, 3.85)
 >  50 43 31 0.86 (0.47, 1.58) 6 0.86 (0.33, 2.22) 4 0.28 (0.08, 0.97) 9 1.44 (0.61, 3.41) 2 0.93 (0.20, 4.22) 10 1.26 (0.56, 2.83)
Maximum level of exposure (mg/m3)
 <  3 50 41 1.09 (0.63, 1.89) 5 0.55 (0.18, 1.62) 10 0.82 (0.37, 1.81) 8 1.33 (0.56, 3.14) 4 1.90 (0.62, 5.87) 14 1.58 (0.77, 3.24)
 ≥ 3 25 16 0.79 (0.35, 1.77) 4 1.01 (0.31, 3.30) 2 0.32 (0.07, 1.48) 4 1.09 (0.32, 3.62) 1 0.75 (0.09, 6.25) 5 1.07 (0.36, 3.17)
Cumulative duration of exposure (years)
 ≤ 7 43 45 1.22 (0.70, 2.14) 6 0.75 (0.27, 2.04) 8 0.64 (0.26, 1.56) 11 1.75 (0.79–3.86) 4 1.95 (0.63, 6.02) 16 1.86 (0.92, 3.75)
 >  7 32 12 0.63 (0.28, 1.44) 3 0.67 (0.18, 2.46) 4 0.69 (0.22, 2.16) 1 0.34 (0.04, 2.71) 1 0.75 (0.08, 6.42) 3 0.68 (0.19, 2.45)
Cumulative exposure index (mg/m3-years)
 ≤ 6 38 37 1.43 (0.78, 2.61) 5 0.81 (0.26, 2.47) 8 0.81 (0.33, 1.98) 6 1.42 (0.53, 3.78) 4 3.04 (0.97, 9.54) 14 2.26 (1.07, 4.76)
 >  6 37 20 0.60 (0.29, 1.22) 4 0.58 (0.18, 1.82) 4 0.37 (0.12, 1.15) 6 1.01 (0.36, 2.77) 1 0.40 (0.05, 3.25) 5 0.65 (0.23, 1.85)
  1. a ORs (odds ratios) adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, and tobacco and alcohol consumption
  2. b Never exposed = reference category for all variables presented in Table 2
  3. c A subject was considered “ever” exposed to leather dust if he/she had a non-zero probability of exposure
  4. HNC head and neck cancer