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Table 3 Associations between the risk of head and neck cancer and materials handled, tasks performed, and glues used. Results from the specific questionnaire on leather work

From: Head and neck cancer and occupational exposure to leather dust: results from the ICARE study, a French case-control study

  Cases (n = 1926) Controls (n = 3481) ORa (95% CI)
n % n %
Held at least one job exposed to leather dust and filled out at least one specific questionnaire
 No b 1902 98.8 3450 99.1 reference
 Yes 24 1.2 31 0.9 1.15 (0.57, 2.31)
Materials handled
 Exposure to soft leather
  Never 2 0.1 5 0.1 0.95 (0.16, 5.63)
  Ever 19 0.9 24 0.6 1.33 (0.61, 2.92)
 Exposure to thick leather
  Never 7 0.3 9 0.2 1.86 (0.55, 6.25)
 Ever 14 0.7 21 0.6 0.86 (0.36, 2.06)
 Exposure to crepe rubber
  Never 9 0.4 21 0.6 0.77 (0.28, 2.05)
  Ever 10 0.5 7 0.2 1.93 (0.57, 6.54)
 Exposure to synthetic leather
  Never 12 0.6 14 0.4 1.14 (0.41, 3.14)
  Ever 10 0.5 15 0.4 1.44 (0.53, 3.86)
 Exposure to textile materials      
  Never 17 0.8 18 0.5 1.69 (0.70, 4.03)
  Ever 6 0.3 11 0.3 0.75 (0.21, 2.56)
 Exposure to other materials c
  Never 15 0.7 25 0.7 0.88 (0.39, 2.01)
  Ever 7 0.3 1 < 0.1 18.75 (1.77, 197.89)
Tasks performed
 Cutting of leather
  Never 5 0.2 9 0.2 1.08 (0.25, 4.51)
  Ever 18 0.9 21 0.6 1.17 (0.52, 2.63)
 Cutting of other materials
  Never 10 0.5 14 0.4 1.61 (0.53, 4.88)
  Ever 12 0.6 16 0.4 1.03 (0.41, 2.57)
 Scouring, roughing, grinding, trimming, buffing of leather
  Never 9 0.4 15 0.4 1.14 (0.39, 3.30)
  Ever 13 0.6 14 0.4 1.49 (0.56, 3.92)
 Gluing
  Never 6 0.3 8 0.2 2.88 (0.74, 11.2)
  Ever 18 0.9 22 0.6 1.02 (0.47, 2.23)
 Sewing
  Never 7 0.3 8 0.2 0.80 (0.22, 2.85)
  Ever 17 0.8 23 0.6 1.34 (0.59, 3.05)
 Dyeing
  Never 14 0.7 24 0.6 0.81 (0.34, 1.91)
  Ever 9 0.4 6 0.1 3.22 (0.77, 13.32)
 Injection of plastic materials
  Never 19 0.9 26 0.7 1.39 (0.64, 3.02)
  Ever 3 0.1 3 < 0.1 0.84 (0.12, 5.95)
 Other tasks d
  Never 19   24   1.17 (0.54, 2.51)
  Ever 2 0.1 2 0.1 8.08 (0.66, 98.21)
Glues used
 Neoprene glues
  Never 6 0.3 7 0.2 0.55 (0.14, 2.05)
  Ever 18 0.9 24 0.6 1.52 (0.68, 3.39)
 Solvent-based / rubber-based adhesives
  Never 6 0.3 7 0.2 1.03 (0.27, 3.92)
  Ever 18 0.9 24 0.6 1.20 (0.53, 2.71)
 Strong glues/animal skin glues
  Never 6 0.3 10 0.2 0.54 (0.15, 1.94)
  Ever 18 0.9 21 0.6 1.60 (0.70, 3.65)
 Polyurethane glues
  Never 10 0.5 7 0.2 1.87 (0.54, 6.49)
  Ever 14 0.7 24 0.6 0.92 (0.39, 2.16)
 Other glues
  Never 6 0.3 9 0.2 0.99 (0.28, 3.43)
  Ever 17 0.8 22 0.6 1.21 (0.52, 2.82)
  1. a ORs (odds ratios) adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, and tobacco and alcohol consumption
  2. b Reference category for all analyses on materials handled, tasks performed, and glues used was the category of subjects that never held a job entailing leather dust exposure and that did not filled out (a) specific leather questionnaire(s)
  3. c Wood, cork, cardboard, twine, pitch
  4. d Shoes varnishing, polishing and brushing