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Table 3 Association of para-occupational exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and PON1 genotypes with maternal hypothyroxinemia

From: Para-occupational exposure to pesticides, PON1 polymorphisms and hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy in women living in a Mexican floricultural area

Characteristics All women n = 381(%) Hypothyroxinemia p for trend
Yes n = 207 (%) No n = 174 (%) Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Para-occupational exposure to pesticides during pregnancya
 No 219 (57.48) 113 (54.59) 106 (60.92) 1.0 1.0  
 Yes 162 (42.52) 94 (45.41) 68 (39.08) 1.35 (0.88–2.06) 1.21 (0.75–1.94)  
PON1 192QR b
 QQ 119 (31.23) 62 (29.95) 57 (32.76) 1.0 1.0 0.11
 QR 161 (42.26) 82 (39.61) 79 (45.40) 0.89 (0.54–1.45) 0.87 (0.52–1.47)
 RR 101 (26.51) 63 (30.43) 38 (21.84) 1.68 (0.95–2.96) 1.66 (0.92–2.99)
 Q allele 399 (52.30) 206 (49.75) 193 (55.39) 1  
 R allele 363 (47.55) 208 (50.12) 155 (44.48) 1.31 (0.98–1.77) 1.30 (0.96–1.77)
PON155LM*b
 LL 195 (51.18) 93 (44.93) 102 (58.62) 1.0 1 0.001
 LM 103 (27.03) 52 (25.12) 51 (29.31) 0.95 (0.58–1.55) 1.10 (0.65–1.84)
 MM 83 (21.78) 62 (29.95) 21 (12.07) 2.47 (1.37–4.45) 3.01 (1.63–5.57)
 L allele 493 (64.58) 238 (57.35) 255 (73.18) 1 1
 M allele 269 (35.23) 176 (42.41) 93 (26.69) 1.67 (1.21–2.29) 1.93 (1.38–2.69)
PON1–108CT*b
 CC 130 (34.12) 61 (29.47) 69 (39.66) 1.0 1 0.21
 CT 140 (36.75) 83 (40.10) 57 (32.76) 1.36 (0.82–2.24) 1.36 (0.81–2.31)
 TT 111 (29.13) 63 (30.43) 48 (27.59) 1.38 (0.81–2.35) 1.42 (0.82–2.44)
 C allele 400 (52.48) 205 (49.40) 195 (55.96) 1 1
 T allele 362 (47.42) 209 (50.36) 153 (43.91) 1.23 (0.92–1.66) 1.25 (0.92–1.70)
  1. aModel adjusted by: maternal age, education, gestational age, coffee intake, body mass index and maternal PON 1 Genotypes
  2. bModel adjusted by: maternal age, education, gestational age, coffee intake, body mass index and para-occupational exposure to pesticides during pregnancy
  3. *D’ between PON155LM and PON1–108CT polymorphisms p = 0.82; Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for all polymorphisms: p < 0.05