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Table 3 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of phenols1 and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phenol(s) Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes2 All3 Girls3 Boys3
Berkowitz et al. 2004 [143] USA
1998-2002
404 PCP 3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
primiparous only NS NS NS
Wolff et al. 2008 [89] USA
1998-2002
404 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, TCS 3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
primiparous only NS NS - BW (2,5-DCP)
+ BW (BP3)
- BL (2,5-DCP)
Philippat et al. 2012 [96] France
2003-2006
191 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, TCS
∑PB: BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB,
21 weeks BW
BL
HC
    - BW (2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP)
+ BW (BPA)
+ HC (2,4-DCP, BPA, BP3)
Tang et al. 2013 [144] China
2010-2012
567 BP3, BPA Delivery BW
BL
  NS   
Lee et al. 2014 [145] Korea
2007-2010
757 BPA 3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
  + BW (BPA) NS + BW (BPA)
+ BL (BPA)
Philippat et al. 2014 [146] France
2003-2006
520 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, BuPB; EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS 26 weeks BW
BL
HC
    NS
Huo et al. 2015 [147] China
2012-2014
452 BPA Delivery LBW   - LBW (BPA) - LBW (BPA) NS
Smarr et al 2015 [98] USA
2005-2009
233 BPA Pre-conception BW
BL
HC
not adjusted for GA NS   
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain
2004-2006
470 BPA 12, 32 weeks** BW
BL
HC
  NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA
2006-2008
482 BPA 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks** BW   NS NS NS
Guo et al. 2016 [148] China
2009-2010
1100 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, PCP Delivery BW
BL
HC
  - BW (2,4,6-TCP, PCP)
- HC (2,4,6-TCP, PCP)
- HC (2,5-DCP, 2,4-DCP) - BW (2,4,6-TCP, PCP)
- BL (PCP)
- HC (2,4,6-TCP, PCP)
Lassen et al. 2016 [149] Denmark
2010-2012
514 TCS 28 weeks BW
BL
HC
   NS - HC (TCS)
Ding et al. 2017 [150] China
2010-2013
496 BPA, TCS Delivery BW
BL
HC
LBW
SGA
  NS NS + BL (BPA)
Etzel et al. 2017 [151] USA
2003-2006
378 TCS 16, 26.5 weeks** BW
BL
HC
LBW
SGA
not adjusted for GA - BW (TCS) NS NS
Geer et al. 2017 [152] USA
2007-2009
185 2’-OH-TCC, 3’-OH-TCC, 3’-Cl-TCC, BePB, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS, TCC 3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
LBW
not adjusted for GA + LBW (3’-Cl-TCC)   
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan
2010
162 BPA 11 weeks BW
BL
HC
  NS   
26 weeks NS   
Delivery - HC (BPA)   
Wu et al. 2017 [153] China
2012-2014
1006 ∑PB: BePB, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, Delivery BW
BL
  NS NS + BL (MePB)
Wang et al. 2017 [154] China
2012-2013
620 BPA Delivery BW   NS   
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA
2003-2006
272 BPA 16, 26 weeks** BW   NS   
Lee et al. 2018 [155] Korea
2006-2010
788 BPA 36 weeks BW
BL
  + BW (BPA) NS + BW (BPA)
Ferguson et al. 2018 [156, 157] USA
2006-2008
482 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPS, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS, TCC 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks** BW   NS - BW (2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP)
- BL (2,4-DCP)
NS
Hoffman et al. 2018 [158] USA
2001-2006
349 BDCIPP, DPHP, ip-PPP, BCIPH-IPP, BCIPP, tb-PPP 27 weeks BW not adjusted for GA   - BW (ip-PPP) NS
Huo et al. 2018 [159] China
2012-2014
1006 TCS Delivery BW
BL
LBW
  NS NS NS
Krause et al. 2018 [160] Denmark
2012-2014
157 BP1, BP3 18 weeks BW
BL
HC
   NS NS
Messerlian et al. 2018 [161] USA
2005-2016
346 BP3, TCS
∑PB: BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB
Pre-conception BW
HC
not adjusted for GA - HC (MePB, ∑PB) NS - BW (PrPB)
6, 21, 35 weeks** NS NS NS
Ouyang et al. 2018 [162] China
2012-2013
620 TCS Delivery BW   NS + BW (TCS) NS
Wan et al. 2018 [163] China
2012-2014
985 BPS Delivery BW
BL
SGA
  NS NS NS
  1. 1Includes environmental phenols and other non-persistent consumer product chemicals
  2. 2Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  3. 3Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05. Note that (-) associations for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) indicate decreased risk for these outcomes, while (+) associations indicated increased risk with increased exposure.
  4. *Average of two or more urine samples.
  5. Abbreviations. 2’-OH-TCC, 2’-hyhroxy-TCC; 3’-OH-TCC, 3’-hyhroxy-TCC; 3’-Cl-TCC, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide; 2,4-DCP, 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP, 2,5-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; BePB, benzyl paraben; BL, birth length; BP1, benzophenone-1; BP3, benzophenone-3; BPA, bisphenol-A; BPS, bisphenol-S; BuPB, butyl paraben; BW, birth weight; EtPB, ethyl paraben; GA, gestational age; HC, head circumference, LBW, low birth weight; MePB, methyl paraben; PCP, pentachlorophenol; PrPB, propyl paraben; SGA, small for gestational age; TCC, triclocarban; TCS, triclosan; ∑PB, summary measure of the parabens that follow.