Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of phenols1 and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phenol(s) Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes2 All3 Girls3 Boys3
Berkowitz et al. 2004 [143] USA 1998-2002 404 PCP 3rd trimester BW BL HC primiparous only NS NS NS
Wolff et al. 2008 [89] USA 1998-2002 404 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, TCS 3rd trimester BW BL HC primiparous only NS NS - BW (2,5-DCP) + BW (BP3) - BL (2,5-DCP)
Philippat et al. 2012 [96] France 2003-2006 191 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, TCS ∑PB: BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, 21 weeks BW BL HC     - BW (2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP) + BW (BPA) + HC (2,4-DCP, BPA, BP3)
Tang et al. 2013 [144] China 2010-2012 567 BP3, BPA Delivery BW BL   NS   
Lee et al. 2014 [145] Korea 2007-2010 757 BPA 3rd trimester BW BL HC   + BW (BPA) NS + BW (BPA) + BL (BPA)
Philippat et al. 2014 [146] France 2003-2006 520 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, BuPB; EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS 26 weeks BW BL HC     NS
Huo et al. 2015 [147] China 2012-2014 452 BPA Delivery LBW   - LBW (BPA) - LBW (BPA) NS
Smarr et al 2015 [98] USA 2005-2009 233 BPA Pre-conception BW BL HC not adjusted for GA NS   
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain 2004-2006 470 BPA 12, 32 weeks** BW BL HC   NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA 2006-2008 482 BPA 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks** BW   NS NS NS
Guo et al. 2016 [148] China 2009-2010 1100 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, PCP Delivery BW BL HC   - BW (2,4,6-TCP, PCP) - HC (2,4,6-TCP, PCP) - HC (2,5-DCP, 2,4-DCP) - BW (2,4,6-TCP, PCP) - BL (PCP) - HC (2,4,6-TCP, PCP)
Lassen et al. 2016 [149] Denmark 2010-2012 514 TCS 28 weeks BW BL HC    NS - HC (TCS)
Ding et al. 2017 [150] China 2010-2013 496 BPA, TCS Delivery BW BL HC LBW SGA   NS NS + BL (BPA)
Etzel et al. 2017 [151] USA 2003-2006 378 TCS 16, 26.5 weeks** BW BL HC LBW SGA not adjusted for GA - BW (TCS) NS NS
Geer et al. 2017 [152] USA 2007-2009 185 2’-OH-TCC, 3’-OH-TCC, 3’-Cl-TCC, BePB, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS, TCC 3rd trimester BW BL HC LBW not adjusted for GA + LBW (3’-Cl-TCC)   
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan 2010 162 BPA 11 weeks BW BL HC   NS   
26 weeks NS   
Delivery - HC (BPA)   
Wu et al. 2017 [153] China 2012-2014 1006 ∑PB: BePB, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, Delivery BW BL   NS NS + BL (MePB)
Wang et al. 2017 [154] China 2012-2013 620 BPA Delivery BW   NS   
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA 2003-2006 272 BPA 16, 26 weeks** BW   NS   
Lee et al. 2018 [155] Korea 2006-2010 788 BPA 36 weeks BW BL   + BW (BPA) NS + BW (BPA)
Ferguson et al. 2018 [156, 157] USA 2006-2008 482 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPS, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS, TCC 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks** BW   NS - BW (2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP) - BL (2,4-DCP) NS
Hoffman et al. 2018 [158] USA 2001-2006 349 BDCIPP, DPHP, ip-PPP, BCIPH-IPP, BCIPP, tb-PPP 27 weeks BW not adjusted for GA   - BW (ip-PPP) NS
Huo et al. 2018 [159] China 2012-2014 1006 TCS Delivery BW BL LBW   NS NS NS
Krause et al. 2018 [160] Denmark 2012-2014 157 BP1, BP3 18 weeks BW BL HC    NS NS
Messerlian et al. 2018 [161] USA 2005-2016 346 BP3, TCS ∑PB: BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB Pre-conception BW HC not adjusted for GA - HC (MePB, ∑PB) NS - BW (PrPB)
6, 21, 35 weeks** NS NS NS
Ouyang et al. 2018 [162] China 2012-2013 620 TCS Delivery BW   NS + BW (TCS) NS
Wan et al. 2018 [163] China 2012-2014 985 BPS Delivery BW BL SGA   NS NS NS
  1. 1Includes environmental phenols and other non-persistent consumer product chemicals
  2. 2Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  3. 3Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05. Note that (-) associations for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) indicate decreased risk for these outcomes, while (+) associations indicated increased risk with increased exposure.
  4. *Average of two or more urine samples.
  5. Abbreviations. 2’-OH-TCC, 2’-hyhroxy-TCC; 3’-OH-TCC, 3’-hyhroxy-TCC; 3’-Cl-TCC, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide; 2,4-DCP, 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP, 2,5-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; BePB, benzyl paraben; BL, birth length; BP1, benzophenone-1; BP3, benzophenone-3; BPA, bisphenol-A; BPS, bisphenol-S; BuPB, butyl paraben; BW, birth weight; EtPB, ethyl paraben; GA, gestational age; HC, head circumference, LBW, low birth weight; MePB, methyl paraben; PCP, pentachlorophenol; PrPB, propyl paraben; SGA, small for gestational age; TCC, triclocarban; TCS, triclosan; ∑PB, summary measure of the parabens that follow.