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Table 4 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of phenols1 and fetal growth outcomes measured in utero

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phenol(s) Timing of urine collection in utero outcome(s) Timing of outcome assessment All2 Girls2 Boys2
Snijder et al. 2013 [171] the Netherlands
2004-2005
219 BPA 13.2, 20.7, 30.4 weeks+ EFW
HC
20.5, 30.2 weeks - EFW (BPA)
- HC (BPA)
  
Philippat et al. 2014 [146] France
2003-2006
520 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS 26 weeks EFW
AC
BPD
HC
FL
12 weeks    NS
22 weeks    NS
32 weeks    - EFW (TCS)
+ HC (2,5-DCP)
- AC (TCS)
growth rate
22-32 weeks
   - EFW (TCS)
- AC (TCS)
growth rate
32 weeks-birth
   + EFW (TCS, PrPB)
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain
2004-2006
470 BPA 12, 32 weeks* EFW
AC
BPD
HC
FL
12 weeks NS + EFW (BPA)
+ AC (BPA)
NS
20 weeks NS NS - FL (BPA)
34 weeks NS NS NS
growth rate
12-20 weeks
- FL (BPA) NS - EFW (BPA)
- FL (BPA)
growth rate
20-34 weeks
NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA
2006-2008
482 BPA 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* EFW
AC
HC
FL
26, 35, 38 weeks NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2018 [156, 157] USA
2006-2008
482 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPS, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCC, TCS 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* EFW
AC
HC
FL
26, 35, 38 weeks NS - EFW (2,5-DCP)
- AC (BP3, MePB, EtPB, PrPB)
+ FL (BPS)
- EFW (BPS)
Lee et al. 2018 [155] Korea
2006-2010
788 BPA 36 weeks EFW
FL
3rd trimester - FL (BPA) NS NS
  1. 1Includes environmental phenols and other non-persistent consumer product chemicals. All studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05.
  3. +Results only statistically significant among women with three urinary BPA measurements during pregnant (n=80)
  4. *Average of two or more urine samples.
  5. Abbreviations. 2,4-DCP, 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP, 2,5-dichlorophenol; AC, abdominal circumference; BP3, benzophenone-3; BPA, bisphenol-A; BPD, biparietal diameter; BPS, bisphenol-S; BuPB, butyl paraben; EFW, estimated fetal weight; EtPB, ethyl paraben; FL, femur length; HC, head circumference; MePB, methyl paraben; PrPB, propyl paraben; TCC, triclocarban; TCS, triclosan