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Table 4 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of phenols1 and fetal growth outcomes measured in utero

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary phenol(s) Timing of urine collection in utero outcome(s) Timing of outcome assessment All2 Girls2 Boys2
Snijder et al. 2013 [171] the Netherlands 2004-2005 219 BPA 13.2, 20.7, 30.4 weeks+ EFW HC 20.5, 30.2 weeks - EFW (BPA) - HC (BPA)   
Philippat et al. 2014 [146] France 2003-2006 520 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPA, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCS 26 weeks EFW AC BPD HC FL 12 weeks    NS
22 weeks    NS
32 weeks    - EFW (TCS) + HC (2,5-DCP) - AC (TCS)
growth rate 22-32 weeks    - EFW (TCS) - AC (TCS)
growth rate 32 weeks-birth    + EFW (TCS, PrPB)
Casas et al. 2016 [100] Spain 2004-2006 470 BPA 12, 32 weeks* EFW AC BPD HC FL 12 weeks NS + EFW (BPA) + AC (BPA) NS
20 weeks NS NS - FL (BPA)
34 weeks NS NS NS
growth rate 12-20 weeks - FL (BPA) NS - EFW (BPA) - FL (BPA)
growth rate 20-34 weeks NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2016 [101, 102] USA 2006-2008 482 BPA 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* EFW AC HC FL 26, 35, 38 weeks NS NS NS
Ferguson et al. 2018 [156, 157] USA 2006-2008 482 2,4-DCP, 2,5-DCP, BP3, BPS, BuPB, EtPB, MePB, PrPB, TCC, TCS 10, 18, 26, 35 weeks* EFW AC HC FL 26, 35, 38 weeks NS - EFW (2,5-DCP) - AC (BP3, MePB, EtPB, PrPB) + FL (BPS) - EFW (BPS)
Lee et al. 2018 [155] Korea 2006-2010 788 BPA 36 weeks EFW FL 3rd trimester - FL (BPA) NS NS
  1. 1Includes environmental phenols and other non-persistent consumer product chemicals. All studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05.
  3. +Results only statistically significant among women with three urinary BPA measurements during pregnant (n=80)
  4. *Average of two or more urine samples.
  5. Abbreviations. 2,4-DCP, 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP, 2,5-dichlorophenol; AC, abdominal circumference; BP3, benzophenone-3; BPA, bisphenol-A; BPD, biparietal diameter; BPS, bisphenol-S; BuPB, butyl paraben; EFW, estimated fetal weight; EtPB, ethyl paraben; FL, femur length; HC, head circumference; MePB, methyl paraben; PrPB, propyl paraben; TCC, triclocarban; TCS, triclosan