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Table 5 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of pesticides and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary pesticides Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes1 Results2 Interaction with maternal or child PON1 genotype or phenotype
Berkowitz et al. 2004 [143] +USA, 1998-2002 404 TCPy, 3-PBA 3rd trimester BW BL HC primiparous only   Low maternal AREase activity - HC (TCPy)
Wolff et al. 2007 [178] +USA, 1998-2002 404 MDA ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 3rd trimester BW BL HC primiparous only - HC (∑DAP) Low maternal AREase activity - BL (∑DMP) Maternal PON1192 QQ: - BW (∑DEP)
Chevrier et al. 2011 [179] France, 2002-2006 579 atrazine, atrazine mercapturate, simazine, simazine mercapturate, desethylatrazine, desisopropyl atrazine, 2-chlorodiaminoatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, hydroxysimazine, hydroxydesethylatrazine, hydroxy-desisopropyl atrazine, hydroxy-2-chlorodiaminoatrazine (ammeline), alachlor, metolachlor, acetolachlor, 2,6-diethylaniline 1st trimester BW BL HC   - HC (metolachlor)  
Eskenazi et al. 2004 [180] +USA, 1999-2000 488 MDA, TCPy, PNP, DEAMPY, IMPY, CMHC, CIT ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 13, 26 weeks** BW BL HC   + BL (PNP) + HC (∑DAP)  
Harley et al. 2011 [181] +USA, 1999-2000 467 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 13, 26 weeks** BW BL HC    Child PON1-108 CT: + BW (∑DMP, ∑DAP) Child PON1192 RR: + BW (∑DEP) High child AREase activity: + HC (∑DMP, ∑DAP)
Rauch et al. 2012 [182] +USA, 2003-2006 306 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 16, 26 weeks** BW not adjusted for GA - BW (∑DMP, ∑DAP) Child PON1-108 CT: - BW (∑DAP) Child PON1192 QR: - BW (∑DAP)
Wang et al. 2012 [183] China 2006-2007 187 DMP, DMTP, DEP, DETP, DEDTP delivery BW BL   NS  
Zhang et al. 2014 [184] Japan 2009-2011 147 3-PBA 1st trimester BW BL HC   + BW (3-PBA) + HC (3-PBA)  
Ding et al. 2015 [185] China 2010 454 ∑pyrethroids: cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA delivery BW BL HC   - BW (∑pyrethroids)  
Naksen et al. 2015 [186] Thailand 2011-2012 52 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 12 weeks BW BL HC   NS Low maternal PON1 activity: - BW (∑DAP) - HC (∑DMP, ∑DEP, ∑DAP) High maternal PON1 activity: + BW (∑DMP)
32 weeks NS Low maternal PON1 activity: - HC (∑DEP, ∑DAP)
delivery NS NS
Harley et al. 2016 [187] USA (3 pooled studies) 1999-2006 1169 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 1-2 samples during pregnancy BW BL HC   NS Child PON1-108 TT: + BL (∑DMP) Child PON1192 RR: - BL (∑DMP) Maternal PON1192 QR: + HC (∑DEP)
Liu et al. 2016 [188] China 2011-2012 310 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP delivery BW BL HC   - HC (∑DAP)  
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA 2003-2006 272 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 16, 26 weeks** BW   NS  
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan 2010 105 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 11 weeks BW BL HC   NS  
26 weeks   - BW (DEP) - BL (DEP, ∑DEP)  
delivery   NS  
Dalsager et al. 2018 [189] Denmark 2010-2012 858 TCPy, 3-PBA, 2,4-D ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP ∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP ∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP 28 weeks BW HC   NS  
Parvez et al. 2018 [190] USA 2015-2016 71 Glyphosate 11-39 weeks BW HC   NS  
Zhang et al. 2018 [191] China 2009-2010 1100 Carbofuran delivery BW BL HC   NS  
  1. 1Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05.
  3. *Average of two or more urine samples
  4. +Included in Harley et al. 2016 pooled study
  5. Abbreviations. 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 3-PBA, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; AREase, arylesterase; BL, birth length; BW, birth weight; cis-DCCA, cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid; CIT, 5-chloro-1-isopropyl-3-hydroxytriazole; CMHC, 3-chloro-4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin; DEAMPY, 2-diethylamino-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyrimidine; DEP, diethylphosphate; DEDTP, diethyldithiophosphate; DETP, diethylthiophosphate; DMP, dimethylphosphate; DMDTP, dimethyldithiophosphate; DMTP, dimethylthiophosphate; HC, head circumference; IMPY, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine; MDA, malathion dicarboxylic acid; PNP, 4-nitrophenol; TCPy, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; trans-DCCA, trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid; ∑DAP, molar sum of the dialkyl phosphate metabolites that follow; ∑DEP, molar sum of the diethyl phosphate metabolites that follow; ∑DMP, molar sum of the dimethyl phosphate metabolites that follow