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Table 5 Studies of maternal prenatal urinary biomarkers of pesticides and fetal growth outcomes measured at birth

From: Fetal growth in environmental epidemiology: mechanisms, limitations, and a review of associations with biomarkers of non-persistent chemical exposures during pregnancy

Reference Country, years N Urinary pesticides Timing of urine collection Birth size outcome(s) Notes1 Results2 Interaction with maternal or child PON1 genotype or phenotype
Berkowitz et al. 2004 [143] +USA, 1998-2002 404 TCPy, 3-PBA 3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
primiparous only   Low maternal AREase activity
- HC (TCPy)
Wolff et al. 2007 [178] +USA, 1998-2002 404 MDA
∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
3rd trimester BW
BL
HC
primiparous only - HC (∑DAP) Low maternal AREase activity
- BL (∑DMP)
Maternal PON1192 QQ:
- BW (∑DEP)
Chevrier et al. 2011 [179] France, 2002-2006 579 atrazine, atrazine mercapturate, simazine, simazine mercapturate, desethylatrazine, desisopropyl atrazine, 2-chlorodiaminoatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, hydroxysimazine, hydroxydesethylatrazine, hydroxy-desisopropyl atrazine, hydroxy-2-chlorodiaminoatrazine (ammeline), alachlor, metolachlor, acetolachlor, 2,6-diethylaniline 1st trimester BW
BL
HC
  - HC (metolachlor)  
Eskenazi et al. 2004 [180] +USA, 1999-2000 488 MDA, TCPy, PNP, DEAMPY, IMPY, CMHC, CIT
∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
13, 26 weeks** BW
BL
HC
  + BL (PNP)
+ HC (∑DAP)
 
Harley et al. 2011 [181] +USA, 1999-2000 467 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
13, 26 weeks** BW
BL
HC
   Child PON1-108 CT:
+ BW (∑DMP, ∑DAP)
Child PON1192 RR:
+ BW (∑DEP)
High child AREase activity:
+ HC (∑DMP, ∑DAP)
Rauch et al. 2012 [182] +USA, 2003-2006 306 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
16, 26 weeks** BW not adjusted for GA - BW (∑DMP, ∑DAP) Child PON1-108 CT:
- BW (∑DAP)
Child PON1192 QR:
- BW (∑DAP)
Wang et al. 2012 [183] China
2006-2007
187 DMP, DMTP, DEP, DETP, DEDTP delivery BW
BL
  NS  
Zhang et al. 2014 [184] Japan
2009-2011
147 3-PBA 1st trimester BW
BL
HC
  + BW (3-PBA)
+ HC (3-PBA)
 
Ding et al. 2015 [185] China
2010
454 ∑pyrethroids: cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA, 3-PBA delivery BW
BL
HC
  - BW (∑pyrethroids)  
Naksen et al. 2015 [186] Thailand
2011-2012
52 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
12 weeks BW
BL
HC
  NS Low maternal PON1 activity:
- BW (∑DAP)
- HC (∑DMP, ∑DEP, ∑DAP)
High maternal PON1 activity:
+ BW (∑DMP)
32 weeks NS Low maternal PON1 activity:
- HC (∑DEP, ∑DAP)
delivery NS NS
Harley et al. 2016 [187] USA
(3 pooled studies)
1999-2006
1169 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
1-2 samples during pregnancy BW
BL
HC
  NS Child PON1-108 TT:
+ BL (∑DMP)
Child PON1192 RR:
- BL (∑DMP)
Maternal PON1192 QR:
+ HC (∑DEP)
Liu et al. 2016 [188] China
2011-2012
310 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
delivery BW
BL
HC
  - HC (∑DAP)  
Woods et al. 2017 [110] USA
2003-2006
272 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
16, 26 weeks** BW   NS  
Huang et al. 2017 [108] Taiwan
2010
105 ∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
11 weeks BW
BL
HC
  NS  
26 weeks   - BW (DEP)
- BL (DEP, ∑DEP)
 
delivery   NS  
Dalsager et al. 2018 [189] Denmark
2010-2012
858 TCPy, 3-PBA, 2,4-D
∑DMP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP
∑DEP: DEP, DEDTP, DETP
∑DAP: DMP, DMDTP, DMTP, DEP, DEDTP, DETP
28 weeks BW
HC
  NS  
Parvez et al. 2018 [190] USA
2015-2016
71 Glyphosate 11-39 weeks BW
HC
  NS  
Zhang et al. 2018 [191] China
2009-2010
1100 Carbofuran delivery BW
BL
HC
  NS  
  1. 1Unless otherwise specified, studies included term, preterm, parous, and nulliparous births, and models of birth outcomes adjusted for or standardized to gestational age.
  2. 2Blank cells indicate associations were not examined; NS indicates that associations within that category were examined but not statistically significant at p<0.05.
  3. *Average of two or more urine samples
  4. +Included in Harley et al. 2016 pooled study
  5. Abbreviations. 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 3-PBA, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; AREase, arylesterase; BL, birth length; BW, birth weight; cis-DCCA, cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid; CIT, 5-chloro-1-isopropyl-3-hydroxytriazole; CMHC, 3-chloro-4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin; DEAMPY, 2-diethylamino-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyrimidine; DEP, diethylphosphate; DEDTP, diethyldithiophosphate; DETP, diethylthiophosphate; DMP, dimethylphosphate; DMDTP, dimethyldithiophosphate; DMTP, dimethylthiophosphate; HC, head circumference; IMPY, 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine; MDA, malathion dicarboxylic acid; PNP, 4-nitrophenol; TCPy, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; trans-DCCA, trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid; ∑DAP, molar sum of the dialkyl phosphate metabolites that follow; ∑DEP, molar sum of the diethyl phosphate metabolites that follow; ∑DMP, molar sum of the dimethyl phosphate metabolites that follow