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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of mothers and infant birth outcomes in Vietnamese pregnancy cohort

From: Exposure to arsenic in utero is associated with various types of DNA damage and micronuclei in newborns: a birth cohort study

VariablesAllMaternal arsenic exposure by toenail As 
 Low (<  0.5 μg/g)Medium (0.5–1 μg/g)High (> 1 μg/g)p-valuea
(n = 205)(n = 82)(n = 57)(n = 66) 
Pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) (mean ± SD)21.7 ± 2.221.5 ± 2.221.5 ± 2.322.2 ± 2.10.064
Maternal age (years) (mean ± SD)26.6 ± 4.127.1 ± 4.325.7 ± 3.426.8 ± 4.30.184
Residential area (As in drinking water) [n (%)]b    0.000
 Ba Sao (0.64 μg/L)31 (15.1)18 (22.0)10 (17.5)3 (4.5) 
 Kha Phong (0.60 μg/L)3 (1.5)1 (1.2)02 (3.0) 
 Thi Son (1.64 μg/L)66 (32.2)48 (58.5)10 (17.5)8 (12.1) 
 Hoang Tay (65.7 μg/L)30 (14.6)6 (7.3)11 (19.3)13 (19.7) 
 Nhant Tan (61.7 μg/L)67 (32.7)4 (4.9)23 (40.4)40 (60.6) 
 Van Xa (27.2 μg/L)8 (3.9)5 (6.1)3 (5.3)0 
Education level [n (%)]    0.019
 Elementary school15 (7.3)2 (2.4)3 (5.3)10 (15.2) 
 Secondary school135 (65.9)51 (62.2)44 (77.2)40 (60.6) 
 Diploma40 (19.5)20 (24.4)7 (12.3)13 (19.7) 
 College graduate15 (7.3)9 (11.0)3 (5.3)3 (4.5) 
Maternal occupation [n (%)]    0.074
 Housewife32 (15.6)10 (12.2)9 (15.8)13 (19.7) 
 Agricultural worker91 (44.4)31 (37.8)26 (45.6)34 (51.5) 
 Factory worker44 (21.5)18 (22.0)11 (19.3)15 (22.7) 
 Employee30 (14.6)18 (22.0)10 (17.5)2 (3.0) 
 Vendor8 (3.9)5 (6.1)1 (1.8)2 (3.0) 
Parity [n (%)]    0.477
 1 person75 (36.6)32 (39.0)21 (36.8)22 (33.3) 
 2 persons100 (48.8)41 (50.0)30 (52.6)29 (43.9) 
 3 persons25 (12.2)8 (9.8)5 (8.8)12 (18.2) 
  ≥ 4 persons5 (2.4)1 (1.2)1 (1.8)3 (4.5) 
Antenatal care services [n (%)]    0.464
 Province clinic hospital20 (9.8)9 (11.0)7 (12.3)4 (6.1) 
 District clinic hospital23 (11.2)11 (13.4)8 (14.0)4 (6.1) 
 Health center of commune21 (10.2)9 (11.0)7 (12.3)5 (7.6) 
 Private medical center125 (61.0)48 (58.5)32 (56.1)45 (68.2) 
 Not having antenatal care16 (7.8)5 (6.1)3 (5.3)8 (12.1) 
Complications during pregnancy [n (%)]    0.683
 No189 (92.2)74 (90.2)53 (93.0)62 (93.9) 
 Yes16 (7.8)8 (9.8)4 (7.0)4 (6.0) 
History of miscarriage [n (%)]    0.409
 Never175 (85.4)71 (86.6)52 (91.2)52 (78.8) 
 1 time23 (11.2)7 (8.5)5 (8.8)11 (16.7) 
 2 times4 (2.0)2 (2.4)02 (3.0) 
  ≥ 3 times3 (1.5)2 (2.4)01 (1.5) 
Urinary Cotinine (μg/mmol creatinine) Median (range)nd (nd-8.03)ndnd (nd-8.03)nd 
Infant birth outcomes
 Gender    0.220
  Male [n (%)]109 (53.7)45 (54.9)30 (53.6)34 (52.3) 
  Female [n (%)]94 (46.3)37 (45.1)26 (46.4)31 (47.7) 
 Birth length (cm) (mean  ± SD)49.8 ± 2.250.4 ± 2.049.1 ± 2.849.8 ± 1.40.001
 Birth weight (kg) (mean ± SD)3.1 ± 0.83.2 ± 0.83.0 ± 0.83.0 ± 0.80.154
 Head circumference (cm) (mean ± SD)32.2 ± 2.731.9 ± 2.132.6 ± 4.032.2 ± 1.80.336
  1. aStatistically significant difference among groups at p < 0.05 by One-way ANOVA are highlighted in bold
  2. bMean arsenic concentrations in drinking water obtained from Do et al., 2013 [5]