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Table 2 Arsenic exposure in mothers and newborns

From: Exposure to arsenic in utero is associated with various types of DNA damage and micronuclei in newborns: a birth cohort study

ParametersMaternal arsenic exposure by toenail Asp-value b
Low (<  0.5 mg/g)Medium (0.5–1 mg/g)High (> 1 mg/g)
(n = 82)(n = 57)(n = 66)
Maternal toenail As (μg/g)0.30 ± 0.01b0.73 ± 0.02***1.92 ± 0.13***, ###0.000
0.29 (0.10–0.49)c0.71 (0.50–0.99)1.55 (1.00–6.07) 
Maternal urinary As
 Total arsenic (μg/L)28.20 ± 2.2740.05 ± 3.69*60.71 ± 6.23***,##0.000
25.26 (2.16–130.23)29.26 (8.48–111.05)50.55 (10.03–328.90) 
 Total arsenic (μg/g creatinine)57.46 ± 4.2567.95 ± 4.5893.91 ± 7.42***, ##0.013
46.68 (1.57–162.39)61.88 (13.39–166.66)75.59 (16.57–339.59) 
Urinary As metabolites
 iAs (μg/L)3.48 ± 0.343.38 ± 0.324.71 ± 0.64**, #0.014
2.96(nd-17.13)2.96(nd-9.67)3.05 (0.68–38.26) 
 MMA (μg/L)4.60 ± 0.435.57 ± 0.51*7.74 ± 0.81***0.000
3.98(nd-18.42)4.30(nd-16.82)6.03 (0.13–40.13) 
 DMA (μg/L)32.90 ± 2.8434.69 ± 3.3447.14 ± 4.90**0.010
25.26(1.59–140.92)26.28(9.08–115.14)36.17 (5.04–247.81) 
Umbilical cord blood As (μg/L)1.70 ± 0.092.09 ± 0.132.46 ± 0.21**0.000
1.50 (0.17–4.60)1.78 (0.85–6.22)2.05 (0.89–9.72) 
  1. aStatistically significant difference among groups at p < 0.05 by One-way ANOVA are highlighted in bold
  2. Values are expressed as mean ± SE (b) and median (minimum - maximum) (c)
  3. *, **, *** Statistically significant difference from corresponding low-exposed group at p < 0.05, < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively by Mann-Whitney U test
  4. #, ##, ###Statistically significant difference from corresponding medium-exposed group at p < 0.05, < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively by Mann-Whitney U test