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Table 4 Micronucleus frequency in cord blood of newborns exposed to arsenic in utero

From: Exposure to arsenic in utero is associated with various types of DNA damage and micronuclei in newborns: a birth cohort study

ParametersMaternal arsenic exposure by toenail AsFDR- adjusted p-valuea
Low (<  0.5 μg/g)Medium (0.5–1 μg/g)High (> 1 μg/g)
MN in mononucleated cells (per 1000 cells)0.16 ± 0.04b0.48 ± 0.08**0.60 ± 0.09***0.000
0.00 (0.00–1.00)c0.00 (0.00–2.00)1.00 (0.00–2.00) 
(n = 70)(n = 46)(n = 52) 
MN in binucleated cells (per 1000 cells)1.96 ± 0.212.26 ± 0.343.08 ± 0.41*0.037
2.00 (0.00–12.0)2.00 (0.00–13.0)2.00 (0.00–15.0) 
(n = 70)(n = 46)(n = 52) 
Nuclear division index (NDI)1.94 ± 0.011.97 ± 0.021.94 ± 0.010.117
1.92 (1.75–2.19)1.97 (1.79–2.75)1.95 (1.59–2.07) 
(n = 70)(n = 46)(n = 52) 
  1. aThe raw p-values were subjected to multiple testing correction using FDR-adjusted p-value; Statistically significant difference among groups at p < 0.05 by One-way ANOVA are highlighted in bold
  2. Values are expressed as mean ± SE (b) and Median (minimum - maximum) (c)
  3. *, **, *** Statistically significant difference from corresponding low- exposed group at p < 0.05, < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively by Mann-Whitney U test