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Table 4 The association between PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and ultrasound measures for fetal growth

From: Maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and fetal growth in Shanghai, China

Fetal growth parameters βa (95% CI)
Crude b Adjusted-1 c Adjusted-2 d Adjusted-3(the full model) e
AC −0.62(−3.35, 2.11) −5.71(− 9.17, − 2.25) −5.57(− 9.06, − 2.08) −5.48(− 9.06, − 1.91)
BPD −1.63(− 2.48, − 0.78) −5.82(− 6.88, − 4.75) −5.77(− 6.84, − 4.69) −5.57(− 6.66, − 4.47)
FL −2.21(− 2.91, − 1.50) − 5.82(− 6.71, − 4.92) −5.73(− 6.63, − 4.83) −5.47(− 6.39, − 4.55)
EFW-H f −18.11(− 19.33, − 16.96) −14.45(− 16.96, − 15.72) −14.53(− 15.81, − 13.34) −14.49(− 16.05, − 13.49)
EFW-S g −16.63(− 17.68, − 15.63) −13.40(− 14.50, − 12.38) −13.44(− 14.56, − 12.41) −13.56(− 14.71, − 12.50)
  1. aestimates per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure.
  2. bAdjusted for gestational age.
  3. cAdjusted for a and (infants’ gender, pregnancy hypertension, gestational diabetes, mother age, parity, gravidity, staff medical insurance, season of conception).
  4. dAdjusted for a, b and (SO2, NO2, PM10 and O3).
  5. eAdjusted for a, b, c and (relative humidity and temperature).
  6. fEstimated fetal weight calculated by Hadlock’s third formula: Log10(EFW-H) =1.304 + (0.05281*AC) + (0.1938*FL) -(0.004*AC*FL).
  7. gEstimated fetal weight calculated by Shepard formula: Log10(EFW-S) =1.2508 + (0.166*BPD) + (0.046*AC) -(0.002646*AC*BPD).