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Table 4 Regression slopes (95% CI) for the associations (per SD = 1 increase) between air pollutant and children’s health depending on the level of confounder adjustment (in bold the significant associations, p < 0.05)

From: Relations between air pollution and vascular development in 5-year old children: a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

  Model0 Model1 Model2a Model2b
cIMT
 NO2 0.77 (−2.2, 3.8) 1.22 (−2.0, 4.4) 1.25 (−2.5, 5.0) 1.18 (−2.6, 5.0)
 NOx −0.42 (−3.4, 2.5) − 0.25 (− 3.5, 3.0) −1.47 (−5.3, 2.3) −1.32 (−5.2, 2.5)
 PM2.5 − 0.63 (− 3.6, 2.4) −1.49 (−4.8, 1.8) −1.87 (− 5.6, 1.9) −1.57 (− 5.4, 2.3)
 PM10 0.60 (−2.4, 3.6) 0.84 (−2.4, 4.1) − 0.48 (−4.2, 3.2) − 0.54 (− 4.3, 3.2)
 PM2.5abs 0.42 (− 2.6, 3.4) 0.58 (−2.7, 3.8) − 0.58 (−4.3, 3.1) − 0.63 (− 4.4, 3.1)
EM
 NO2 −1.15 (−5.2, 2.9) −2.62 (−7.1, 1.8) − 1.01 (− 6.2, 4.2) − 1.27 (− 6.5, 4.0)
 NOx − 1.92 (− 5.8, 2.0) −2.29 (− 6.8, 2.2) −2.43 (−7.5, 2.6) − 2.14 (− 7.3, 3.0)
 PM2.5 2.01 (−2.1, 6.1) 3.48 (− 1.1, 8.1) 4.26 (− 1.0, 9.5) 4.65 (− 0.7, 10)
 PM10 − 1.45 (− 5.5, 2.6) − 2.44 (−6.9–2.0) −1.67 (− 6.7, 3.4) − 1.91 (− 7.0, 3.2)
 PM2.5abs − 1.28 (− 5.3, 2.8) −2.27 (−6.8, 2.2) − 1.68 (− 6.8, 3.4) −1.94 (− 7.1, 3.2)
cD
 NO2 −0.79 (−1.8, 0.2) − 0.80 (− 1.8, 0.2) − 1.50 (− 2.8, − 0.2) −1.53 (− 2.8, − 0.2)
 NOx −0.90 (− 1.9, 0.1) − 0.92 (−1.9, 0.1) − 1.33 (− 2.6, − 0.1) −1.35 (− 2.7, − 0.1)
 PM2.5 −0.54 (− 1.6, 0.5) −0.60 (− 1.7, 0.5) −1.34 (− 2.7, − 0.0) −1.38 (− 2.7, − 0.0)
 PM10 − 1.21 (− 2.3- -0.2) −1.22 (− 2.3, − 0.2) −1.44 (− 2.7, − 0.2) −1.56 (−2.7, − 0.4)
 PM2.5abs − 1.25 (− 2.3- -0.2) − 1.25 (− 2.3, − 0.2) − 1.48 (− 2.8, − 0.2) −1.63 (− 2.8, − 0.4)
DBP
 NO2 0.13 (−0.4, 0.7) 0.23 (−0.3, 0.8) 0.38 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.39 (−0.3, 1.1)
 NOx 0.18 (−0.3, 0.7) 0.19 (−0.4, 0.8) 0.01 (−0.7, 0.7) −0.07 (− 0.8, 0.6)
 PM2.5 0.50 (−0.1, 1.0) 0.54 (−0.0, 1.1) 0.59 (−0.1, 1.3) 0.54 (−0.1, 1.2)
 PM10 0.24 (−0.3, 0.8) 0.30 (−0.3, 0.9) 0.32 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.32 (−0.3, 1.0)
 PM2.5abs 0.20 (−0.3, 0.7) 0.32 (−0.3, 0.9) 0.30 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.31 (−0.3, 1.0)
SBP
 NO2 0.09 (−0.5, 0.6) 0.23 (−0.3, 0.8) 0.26 (−0.4, 0.9) 0.27 (−0.4, 0.9)
 NOx −0.24 (−0.7, 0.3) 0.11 (−0.7, 0.5) − 0.16 (− 0.8, 0.5) −0.07 (− 0.8, 0.6)
 PM2.5 0.28 (−0.3, 0.8) 0.27 (−0.0, 1.1) 0.31 (−0.4, 1.0) 0.36 (−0.3, 1.0)
 PM10 0.11 (−0.4, 0.6) 0.21 (−0.4, 0.8) 0.22 (−0.4, 0.9) 0.27 (−0.4, 0.9)
 PM2.5abs 0.13 (−0.4, 0.7) 0.32 (−0.2, 0.9) 0.30 (−0.3, 1.0) 0.30 (−0.4, 1.0)
  1. Model 0: completely unadjusted; Model 1: adjusted for sex, age; Model 2a: model 1+ parental SES characteristics; Model 2b: model 2a + exposed to smoke during pregnancy + child exposed to smoke later in life.