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Table 3 Associations between maternal PFAS concentrations (ln-transformed) and neuropsychological problems of ASQ scales at 4 years of age in Poisson regression with robust variance estimates

From: Prenatal plasma concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and neuropsychological development in children at four years of age

PFAS Communication Gross motor Fine motor Problem solving Personal–social skills
CRR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI) CRR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI) CRR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI) CRR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI) CRR (95% CI) ARR (95% CI)
PFHxS 1.15 (0.84, 1.58) 1.10 (0.78, 1.54) 1.07 (0.56, 2.03) 1.00 (0.53, 1.88) 0.80 (0.44, 1.49) 0.79 (0.45, 1.37) 0.88 (0.57, 1.35) 0.85 (0.54, 1.36) 1.49 (0.82, 2.71) 1.60 (0.92, 2.80)#
PFOS 0.99 (0.76, 1.28) 1.01 (0.77, 1.34) 1.16 (0.76, 1.76) 1.22 (0.79, 1.89) 1.20 (0.82, 1.77) 1.25 (0.79, 1.96) 1.05 (0.76, 1.44) 1.02 (0.71, 1.47) 1.23 (0.83, 1.82) 1.34 (0.91, 1.96)
PFOA 0.83 (0.59, 1.15) 0.84 (0.59, 1.19) 0.85 (0.46, 1.55) 0.86 (0.47, 1.58) 0.93 (0.51, 1.70) 0.99 (0.53, 1.84) 1.22 (0.73, 2.03) 1.26 (0.73, 2.15) 1.43 (0.77, 2.64) 1.67 (0.89, 3.14)
PFNA 0.83 (0.61, 1.13) 0.85 (0.61, 1.17) 1.03 (0.62, 1.72) 1.07 (0.63, 1.82) 0.97 (0.55, 1.70) 1.04 (0.58, 1.86) 0.94 (0.63, 1.38) 0.92 (0.60, 1.39) 1.50 (0.93, 2.40) 1.92 (1.21, 3.05)*
PFDA 0.97 (0.77, 1.21) 0.99 (0.78, 1.26) 1.17 (0.78, 1.74) 1.18 (0.78, 1.78) 1.03 (0.72, 1.47) 1.08 (0.72, 1.62) 1.05 (0.77, 1.45) 1.00 (0.71, 1.43) 1.42 (1.00, 2.01)* 1.66 (1.17, 2.37)*
PFUdA 0.96 (0.77, 1.18) 0.97 (0.77, 1.21) 1.07 (0.71, 1.60) 1.06 (0.70, 1.60) 0.92 (0.61, 1.39) 0.94 (0.61, 1.44) 1.00 (0.73, 1.36) 0.97 (0.70, 1.36) 1.28 (0.89, 1.82) 1.44 (0.99, 2.09)
PFDoA 1.04 (0.91, 1.2) 1.08 (0.93, 1.25) 1.09 (0.85, 1.41) 1.07 (0.83, 1.38) 0.88 (0.70, 1.11) 0.89 (0.71, 1.13) 1.11 (0.90, 1.37) 1.08 (0.87, 1.34) 1.15 (0.92, 1.43) 1.17 (0.93, 1.47)
PFTrDA 1.10 (0.95, 1.27) 1.16 (0.99, 1.36)# 1.13 (0.91, 1.41) 1.13 (0.89, 1.43) 1.03 (0.82, 1.29) 1.05 (0.81, 1.36) 0.89 (0.74, 1.08) 0.89 (0.73, 1.10) 1.07 (0.86, 1.35) 1.11 (0.88, 1.38)
  1. Models were adjusted for maternal age at enrollment (age), pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), maternal education, paternal education, parity, per capita household income (< 4000, 4000–8000, and > 8000 CNY), maternal passive smoking (yes or no), maternal prenatal depressive symptoms (yes or no), gestational age (weeks), and child’s sex
  2. CRR Crude risk ratio, ARR Adjusted risk ratio, CI Confidence interval
  3. # Marginally significant differences (0.05 < p < 0.10)
  4. * Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)