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Table 4 Associations between maternal PFAS concentrations (ln-transformed) and neuropsychological problems of ASQ scales at 4 years of age among boys and girls in Poisson regression with robust variance estimates

From: Prenatal plasma concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and neuropsychological development in children at four years of age

PFAS Communication ARR (95% CI) Gross motor ARR (95% CI) Fine motor ARR (95% CI) Problem solving ARR (95% CI) Personal–social skills ARR (95% CI)
Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297) Girl (N = 236) Boy (N = 297)
PFHxS 1.46 (0.79, 2.70) 0.90 (0.60, 1.35) 1.21 (0.43, 3.41) 0.92 (0.41, 2.06) 0.88 (0.31, 2.50) 0.80 (0.41, 1.53) 1.06 (0.40, 2.78) 0.75 (0.43, 1.32) 2.09 (0.58, 7.49) 1.53 (0.84, 2.78)
PFOS 1.04 (0.65, 1.68) 1.00 (0.70, 1.44) 1.35 (0.72, 2.55) 0.96 (0.48, 1.92) 1.08 (0.33, 3.59) 1.32 (0.84, 2.06) 1.16 (0.63, 2.15) 0.93 (0.59, 1.47) 2.56 (1.20, 5.45)* 1.05 (0.67, 1.64)
PFOA 0.64 (0.34, 1.19) 1.07 (0.70, 1.62) 2.31 (0.75, 7.10) 0.47 (0.25, 0.89)* 0.79 (0.10, 6.29) 1.04 (0.55, 1.94) 1.37 (0.42, 4.47) 1.19 (0.68, 2.08) 9.00 (3.82, 21.21)*a 1.03 (0.53, 2.01)
PFNA 0.63 (0.35, 1.12) 1.04 (0.70, 1.54) 1.25 (0.58, 2.69) 0.83 (0.40, 1.73) 0.35 (0.12, 1.04) 1.36 (0.76, 2.43) 0.93 (0.45, 1.91) 0.95 (0.57, 1.57) 3.11 (1.36, 7.13)* 1.55 (0.91, 2.64)
PFDA 1.03 (0.68, 1.54) 0.99 (0.73, 1.33) 1.50 (0.83, 2.69) 0.84 (0.47, 1.51) 0.75 (0.33, 1.69) 1.22 (0.83, 1.81) 1.35 (0.73, 2.47) 0.84 (0.55, 1.27) 2.20 (1.21, 4.00)* 1.42 (0.91, 2.22)
PFUdA 0.99 (0.68, 1.44) 0.96 (0.73, 1.28) 1.10 (0.60, 2.01) 0.89 (0.49, 1.61) 0.89 (0.38, 2.06) 0.96 (0.59, 1.56) 1.15 (0.61, 2.18) 0.90 (0.63, 1.29) 2.44 (1.14, 5.20)* 1.18 (0.75, 1.84)
PFDoA 1.14 (0.85, 1.52) 1.04 (0.88, 1.24) 1.15 (0.76, 1.74) 1.00 (0.72, 1.39) 0.71 (0.36, 1.41) 0.92 (0.71, 1.19) 1.28 (0.84, 1.94) 1.02 (0.79, 1.32) 1.62 (1.04, 2.54) * 1.08 (0.84, 1.38)
PFTrDA 1.08 (0.84, 1.39) 1.18 (0.96, 1.45) 1.08 (0.73, 1.59) 1.13 (0.81, 1.57) 0.62 (0.35, 1.12) 1.16 (0.88, 1.52) 0.93 (0.67, 1.29) 0.89 (0.69, 1.16) 1.08 (0.61, 1.90) 1.10 (0.86, 1.41)
  1. Models were adjusted for maternal age at enrollment (ages), pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), maternal education, paternal education, parity, per capita household income (< 4000, 4000–8000, and > 8000 CNY), maternal passive smoking (yes or no), maternal prenatal depressive symptoms (yes or no), and gestational age (weeks)
  2. aThe strong association may be caused by statistical imprecision mainly due to the imbalanced distribution of numbers of children having potential problems by PFOA concentrations. As shown in Table 5, there was no cases in the lowest tertile group of PFOA concentrations among girls, which potentially influenced the estimation in Poisson regression model
  3. ARR Adjusted risk ratio, CI Confidence interval
  4. * Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)