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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and potential cardiovascular risk factors of the study participants (n = 4304)

From: Smoking-induced risk of future cardiovascular disease is partly mediated by cadmium in tobacco: Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study

Characteristics and risk factors Total Never smokers Long time former smokers Recent former smokers Current smokers
Blood cadmium (μg/L) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 0.24 (0.10–1.52) 0.20 (0.089–0.46) 0.22 (0.10–0.50) 0.36 (0.15–1.11) 1.00 (0.22–2.46)
Age (year) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 58 (48–66) 58 (48–66) 58 (48–66) 57 (48–66) 57 (48–66)
Women [n (%)] 2540 (59%) 1329 (70%) 586 (47%) 152 (52%) 473 (56%)
Waist (cm) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 84 (65–106) 82 (65–103) 87 (66–110) 87 (66–110) 83 (64–105)
Low education [n (%)] 1990 (47%) 853 (45%) 545 (44%) 151 (52%) 441 (52%)
Low physical activity [n (%)] 984 (24%) 427 (23%) 246 (20%) 72 (25%) 241 (29%)
High alcohol intake [n (%)] 154 (3.6%) 35 (1.9%) 55 (4.4%) 11 (3.8%) 53 (6.3%)
Total cholesterol / HDL [Median (p5 - p95)1] 4.5 (2.8–7.6) 4.4 (2.8–7.3) 4.5 (2.8–7.3) 4.7 (2.8–8.2) 4.8 (2.8–8.0)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 4.8 (4.1–5.8) 4.7 (4.1–5.6) 4.7 (4.1–5.8) 4.9 (4.1–5.8) 5.0 (4.3–6.0)
CRP (mg/L) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 1.4 (0.3–8.3) 1.2 (0.3–6.8) 1.3 (0.3–8.2) 1.6 (0.4–8.9) 1.8 (0.3–11.5)
Blood lead (μg/L) [Median (p5 - p95)1] 25.4 (12.7–54.4) 23.1 (12.1–48.9) 26.3 (12.4–51.8) 27.0 (13.1–51.9) 29.4 (14.5–69.4)
  1. 1) p5 – p95: 5th percentile to 95th percentile