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Table 3 Mediation analysis with the aft model, data from 4304 subjects

From: Smoking-induced risk of future cardiovascular disease is partly mediated by cadmium in tobacco: Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study

Aimed event Smoking status Direct effect1 Indirect effect1 Total effect1 PM2
estimate 95% CI3 estimate 95% CI3 estimate 95% CI3
Acute coronary event Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 1.00 0.85, 1.19 1.00 0.99, 1.00 1.00 0.85, 1.19  
Recent former smoker 0.83 0.64, 1.09 0.99 0.96, 1.02 0.83 0.63, 1.08 5%
Current smoker 0.75a 0.60, 0.94 0.96 0.84, 1.09 0.72a 0.60, 0.86 12%
Major adverse coronary event Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.93 0.79, 1.09 1.00 0.99, 1.00 0.92 0.79, 1.08  
Recent former smoker 0.85 0.66, 1.10 0.96a 0.93, 0.99 0.82 0.63, 1.06 21%
Current smoker 0.86 0.70, 1.07 0.85a 0.75, 0.96 0.73a 0.62, 0.87 48%
Stroke Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 1.17 0.95, 1.43 1.00 0.99, 1.00 1.16 0.95, 1.43  
Recent former smoker 0.89 0.65, 1.21 0.98 0.94, 1.02 0.87 0.64, 1.18 15%
Current smoker 0.81 0.63, 1.06 0.93 0.79, 1.08 0.75a 0.61, 0.92 25%
Cardiovascular mortality Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.98 0.94, 1.02 1.00 1.00, 1.00 0.98 0.94, 1.02  
Recent former smoker 0.97 0.9, 1.05 1.00 0.99, 1.00 0.97 0.90, 1.04 0%
Current smoker 0.90a 0.85, 0.95 0.99 0.95, 1.02 0.89a 0.85, 0.93 8%
All-cause mortality Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.98 0.95, 1.01 1.00 1.00, 1.00 0.98 0.95, 1.00  
Recent former smoker 0.95 0.91, 1.00 0.99 0.99, 1.00 0.95a 0.91, 0.99 20%
Current smoker 0.88a 0.85, 0.91 0.97a 0.96, 0.99 0.86a 0.84, 0.88 20%
  1. 1The effects are presented as fold change of survival time; 2PM: proportion mediated (presented for recent former smokers and current smokers); 395% CI: 95% confidence interval; 4) adenotes P < 0.05