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Table 4 Mediation analysis with the Aalen additive hazard model, data from 4304 subjects

From: Smoking-induced risk of future cardiovascular disease is partly mediated by cadmium in tobacco: Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study

Aimed event Smoking status Direct effect1 Indirect effect1 Total effect1 PM2
estimate 95% CI3 estimate 95% CI3 estimate 95% CI3
Acute coronary event Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.25 −0.73, 1.22 0.0044 − 0.030, 0.044 0.25 − 0.72, 1.23  
Recent former smoker 1.80 −0.13, 3.73 0.044 −0.24, 0.33 1.84 −0.088, 3.77 2%
Current smoker 2.34a 0.51, 4.17 0.18 −0.95, 1.31 2.52a 1.13, 3.90 7%
Major adverse coronary event Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.79 −0.33, 1.92 0.036 −0.013, 0.11 0.83 −0.29, 1.96  
Recent former smoker 1.96 −0.23, 4.15 0.37 −0.015, 0.78 2.33a 0.16, 4.51 16%
Current smoker 1.10 −0.94, 3.14 1.50 −0.030, 3.05 2.60a 1.07, 4.13 58%
Stroke Never smoker        
Long time former smoker −0.56 −1.45, 0.32 0.0051 −0.027, 0.043 −0.55 −1.44, 0.33  
Recent former smoker 0.82 −0.89, 2.52 0.046 −0.20, 0.30 0.86 −0.85, 2.59 5%
Current smoker 1.10 −0.61, 2.81 0.18 −0.79, 1.16 1.28a 0.028, 2.53 14%
Cardiovascular mortality Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 0.49 −0.29, 1.26 0.0019 −0.031, 0.037 0.49 −0.29, 1.26  
Recent former smoker 0.81 −0.62, 2.24 0.017 −0.22, 0.26 0.82 −0.57, 2.22 2%
Current smoker 2.57a 0.97, 4.17 0.065 −0.89, 1.01 2.63a 1.40, 3.88 3%
All-cause mortality Never smoker        
Long time former smoker 1.29 −0.12, 2.70 0.059 −0.012, 0.17 1.35 −0.055, 2.76  
Recent former smoker 2.95a 0.28, 5.62 0.52 −0.010, 1.09 3.48a 0.86, 6.11 15%
Current smoker 8.26a 5.24, 11.3 2.08 −0.062, 4.21 10.3a 8.05, 12.6 20%
  1. 1 The effects are presented as number of additional cases per 1000 person-years; 2PM: proportion mediated (presented for recent former smokers and current smokers); 3 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; 4) adenotes P < 0.05