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Table 1 Summary statistics describing sample of children with measured height from India’s 2015–16 DHS, reported for the full sample and by PM2.5 quintiles in the month and district of birth

From: The association of early-life exposure to ambient PM2.5 and later-childhood height-for-age in India: an observational study

  full sample PM2.5 quintile
1 2 3 4 5
PM2.5 in birth month, μ g/m3 54.9 15.3 30.1 45.7 65.2 118.2
height-for-age z-score −1.50 −1.35 −1.45 −1.52 − 1.59 −1.60
temperature (Celsius) 16.5 17.5 17.0 17.2 16.9 13.7
age in months 30.7 31.9 31.2 30.7 30.4 29.1
girls 0.48 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.48
mother’s age at birth 24.3 24.2 24.1 24.2 24.4 24.5
birth order 2.18 1.97 2.09 2.18 2.30 2.38
institutional delivery 0.79 0.86 0.83 0.80 0.75 0.72
mother’s height (cm) 151.7 152.2 151.9 151.6 151.4 151.2
# of children born to mother 2.46 2.23 2.37 2.46 2.59 2.67
mother smokes 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05
rural 0.72 0.67 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.76
uses solid fuels for cooking 0.63 0.53 0.60 0.63 0.68 0.72
defecates in open 0.47 0.40 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.49
born at residence 0.91 0.86 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.94
n (children under 60 months) 218,152 52,947 43,942 40,831 40,551 39,881
  1. Note: Each number, other than sample sizes in the bottom row, is a sample mean. Girl, institutional delivery, mother smokes, rural, uses solid fuels for cooking, defecates in open, and born at residence are each indicators (1 or 0) for that property of the child, mother or household. Sample means and quintiles are computed with DHS sampling weights (which is why n is not constant across quintiles)