Skip to main content

Table 2 Association of district-level PM2.5 (per 100 μg/m3) in month of birth with child height-for-age z-score

From: The association of early-life exposure to ambient PM2.5 and later-childhood height-for-age in India: an observational study

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
PM2.5 ÷ 100 −0.0546** −0.0500* − 0.0491* −0.0486* − 0.0428+ −0.0525*   −0.0216
(0.0201) (0.0218) (0.0220) (0.0220) (0.0222) (0.0231)   (0.0574)
PM2.5 ÷ 100       −0.0149   
 24 months earlier       (0.0226)   
ln(PM2.5)        −0.0175+  
       (0.0104)  
PM2.5 ÷ 100         −0.0370
 above median spline         (0.0694)
n (children under 60 months) 218,152 192,771 192,303 192,302 182,079 192,303 192,303 192,303
age in months × sex FEs yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
district-month FEs yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
year of birth FEs yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
PSU FEs   yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
mother’s height (cm)   yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
temperature & temperature2   yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
birth characteristics    yes yes yes yes yes yes
mother characteristics     yes yes    
household characteristics      yes    
  1. Note: All columns present ordinary least squares fixed effects regressions with the child’s height-for-age z-score as the dependent variable. FE fixed effect, PSU primary sampling unit (urban block or rural village). Standard errors clustered by 640 districts in parentheses. + p < 0.10; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01. In column 8, the spline variable is zero below the median PM2.5 and is identical to PM2.5 above the median. Sample sizes vary because some fixed effects categories lack within-category variation in the independent variable (resulting in that category being dropped), and because not all children’s mothers’ heights were measured. Birth characteristics include mother’s age at birth, birth order, whether the delivery occurred in a hospital or health facility, and whether it was a multiple birth. Mother characteristics include whether she smokes, the total number of children born to her by the time of the survey, and her relationship to the household head. Household-level characteristics include caste, religion, solid fuel use, open defecation, and drinking water source