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Table 2 Weighted distribution of specific gravity-adjusted trace metals from 3rd study visit urine samples (μg/L) by preeclampsia case status (N = 383)

From: Urinary trace metals, maternal circulating angiogenic biomarkers, and preeclampsia: a single-contaminant and mixture-based approach

Metals LOD N (%) < LOD Preeclamptic Median (IQR) or N detected (weighted %) Non-preeclamptic Median (IQR) or N detected (weighted %)
As 0.30 0 (0) 15.9 (6.05, 21.7) 17.9 (9.59, 32.6)
Ba 0.10 4 (1.03) 2.25 (0.93, 4.11) 1.93 (0.98, 3.34)
Cd 0.06 214 (55.9) 0.09 (0.06, 0.14) 0.08 (0.04, 0.14)
Cu 2.50 32 (8.21) 9.62 (8.77, 11.7) 8.96 (6.73, 12.1)
Hg 0.05 32 (8.21) 0.50 (0.24, 0.76) 0.51 (0.27, 0.97)
Mn 0.08 6 (1.54) 0.91 (0.53, 1.18) 0.73 (0.51, 1.13)
Mo 0.30 0 (0) 45.6 (36.2, 69.6) 51.3 (37.1, 68.8)
Ni 0.80 54 (13.8) 3.40 (1.86, 3.97) 2.84 (1.88, 3.97)
Pb 0.10 92 (23.6) 0.34 (0.16, 0.64) 0.35 (0.15, 0.62)
Se 5.00 3 (0.08) 36.3 (31.2, 46.0) 37.0 (29.6, 45.6)
Sn 0.10 24 (6.15) 0.47 (0.28, 0.98) 0.63 (0.35, 1.22)
Tl 0.02 61 (15.6) 0.13 (0.09, 0.16) 0.13 (0.08, 0.18)
Zn 2.00 0 (0) 294 (206, 398) 242 (146, 364)
Bea 0.04 356 (91.3) 3 (9.72) 31 (9.61)
Cra 0.40 330 (84.6) 7 (21.5) 50 (13.2)
Ua 0.01 342 (87.7) 4 (15.3) 43 (11.3)
Wa 0.20 309 (79.2) 4 (15.3) 73 (19.5)
  1. Abbreviations: LOD limit of detection, IQR interquartile range, As arsenic, Ba barium, Cd cadmium, Cu copper, Hg mercury, Mn manganese, Mo molybdenum, Ni nickel, Pb lead, Se selenium, Sn tin, Tl thallium, Zn zinc, Be beryllium, Cr chromium, U uranium, W tungsten
  2. aDenotes metals with > 70% of samples below the limit of detection