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Table 3 Adjusteda association between urinary metals and the HR (95% CI) of preeclampsia

From: Urinary trace metals, maternal circulating angiogenic biomarkers, and preeclampsia: a single-contaminant and mixture-based approach

  Adjusteda HR (95% CI) p
Single Contaminant Models
 As 0.73 (0.46, 1.16) 0.18
 Ba 1.05 (0.62, 1.79) 0.85
 Cd 0.94 (0.54, 1.64) 0.83
 Cu 0.71 (0.23, 2.24) 0.56
 Hg 0.90 (0.63, 1.28) 0.55
 Mn 1.26 (0.75, 2.12) 0.39
 Mo 0.47 (0.21, 1.04) 0.06
 Ni 0.89 (0.50, 1.59) 0.69
 Pb 0.97 (0.67, 1.40) 0.86
 Se 0.28 (0.08, 0.94) 0.04
 Sn 0.82 (0.48, 1.38) 0.45
 Tl 0.80 (0.47, 1.37) 0.42
 Zn 0.94 (0.44, 2.02) 0.88
 Beb 1.46 (0.32, 6.74) 0.63
 Crb 3.48 (1.02, 11.8) 0.05
 Ub 0.99 (0.23, 4.21) 0.99
 Wb 1.77 (0.49, 6.37) 0.38
Principal Components Analysis Models
 PC1: Cu, Se, and Zn 0.89 (0.35, 2.29) 0.81
 PC2: Cd, Mn, and Pb 1.63 (0.74, 3.61) 0.22
 PC3: As, Hg, and Sn 0.75 (0.39, 1.46) 0.40
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, PC principal component, As arsenic, Ba barium, Cd cadmium, Cu copper, Hg mercury, Mn manganese, Mo molybdenum, Ni nickel, Pb lead, Se selenium, Sn tin, Tl thallium, Zn zinc, Be beryllium, Cr chromium, U uranium, W tungsten
  2. aAdjusted for specific gravity (for continuously measured metals in single-contaminant models), smoking during pregnancy, race, educational attainment, insurance status, infant sex, ART, calcium supplementation, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational age at study visit
  3. bDenotes metals with > 70% of samples below the limit of detection