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Table 4 Adjusteda relationship between urinary trace metals and the percent change (95% CI) in circulating maternal angiogenic biomarkers

From: Urinary trace metals, maternal circulating angiogenic biomarkers, and preeclampsia: a single-contaminant and mixture-based approach

  sFlt-1 PlGF sFlt-1/PlGF Ratio
% Change (95% CI) p % Change (95% CI) p % Change (95% CI) p
Single Contaminant Models
 As −0.88 (−7.07, 5.73) 0.79 0.05 (− 6.47, 7.03) 1.0 −1.96 (− 10.5, 7.39) 0.67
 Ba −0.95 (−7.24, 5.78) 0.78 −2.77 (− 9.23, 4.15) 0.42 2.06 (− 6.99, 12.0) 0.67
 Cd −0.45 (−6.72, 6.24) 0.89 −6.99 (− 13.1, − 0.47) 0.04 6.64 (− 2.71, 16.9) 0.17
 Cu 11.5 (0.18, 24.1) 0.05 −10.6 (− 20.1, − 0.001) 0.05 23.7 (6.44, 43.8) < 0.01
 Hg 4.99 (−0.95, 11.3) 0.10 −1.65 (−7.48, 4.56) 0.59 6.17 (−2.22, 15.3) 0.15
 Mn 1.45 (−5.89, 9.36) 0.71 −1.44 (−8.89, 6.62) 0.72 1.88 (−8.37, 13.3) 0.73
 Mo 0.69 (−9.49, 12.0) 0.90 4.99 (−6.09, 17.4) 0.39 −5.72 (−18.9, 9.60) 0.44
 Ni 2.27 (−6.46, 11.8) 0.62 −0.51 (−9.39, 9.24) 0.92 4.22 (− 8.12, 18.2) 0.52
 Pb −2.34 (−7.03, 2.58) 0.35 −7.20 (−11.8, − 2.33) < 0.01 4.80 (− 2.24, 12.4) 0.19
 Se −4.07 (− 19.5, 14.3) 0.64 − 18.2 (−31.8, − 1.80) 0.03 15.9 (− 9.49, 48.3) 0.24
 Sn 5.15 (− 1.17, 11.9) 0.11 4.98 (− 1.61, 12.0) 0.14 0.22 (− 8.20, 9.42) 0.96
 Tl −4.52 (−11.1, 2.56) 0.20 −4.35 (− 11.3, 3.08) 0.24 −0.30 (− 9.89, 10.3) 0.95
 Zn −2.67 (−11.22, 6.7) 0.56 −5.17 (− 13.9, 4.41) 0.28 3.45 (−9.16, 17.8) 0.61
 Beb −6.72 (−25.2, 16.3) 0.54 15.3 (−8.42, 45.2) 0.23 −17.5 (−39.5, 12.6) 0.23
 Crb −9.09 (−25.4, 10.8) 0.34 −24.5 (−38.2, − 7.77) < 0.01 5.25 (− 20.4, 39.1) 0.72
 Ub −17.7 (− 33.3, 1.48) 0.07 − 9.16 (− 27.1, 13.1) 0.39 −11.1 (− 33.9, 19.5) 0.44
 Wb 1.09 (−14.0, 18.9) 0.90 −1.62 (− 16.9, 16.5) 0.85 4.77 (− 16.6, 31.7) 0.69
Principal Components Analysis
 PC1: Cu, Se, and Zn −3.85 (−13.7, 7.07) 0.47 −13.5 (−22.6, − 3.41) 0.01 11.6 (− 3.97, 29.8) 0.15
 PC2: Cd, Mn, and Pb 2.23 (−7.74, 13.3) 0.67 −11.9 (−20.7, − 2.12) 0.02 14.9 (−0.49, 32.8) 0.06
 PC3: As, Hg, and Sn 4.59 (−5.71, 16.0) 0.40 3.43 (−7.03, 15.1) 0.54 0.56 (−13.0, 16.2) 0.94
  1. Abbreviations: sFlt-1 soluble fms-like tyrosine, PlGF placental growth factor, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, PC principal component, As arsenic, Ba barium, Cd cadmium Cu copper, Hg mercury, Mn manganese, Mo molybdenum, Ni nickel, Pb lead, Se selenium, Sn tin, Tl thallium, Zn zinc, Be beryllium, Cr chromium, U uranium, W tungsten
  2. aAdjusted for specific gravity (for continuously measured metals in single-contaminant models), smoking during pregnancy, race, educational attainment, insurance status, infant sex, ART, calcium supplementation, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational age at study visit
  3. bDenotes metals with > 70% of samples below the limit of detection