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Table 5 Linear mixed effect model testing metals and SES association with neurocognitive outcomes

From: Neurocognitive impact of metal exposure and social stressors among schoolchildren in Taranto, Italy

  SES Mid vs Low SES High vs Low log (BPb) log (HMn) log (HHg) log (UAs) log (UCd) log (BSe)
WISC IV
 IQ 1.3 (−2.3, 5.2) 4.8a (0.3, 9.6) −1.1 (− 2.7, 0.6) 0.2 (−1.6, 1.7) −0.03 (− 1.9, 1.8) 0.9 (− 1.0, 2.7) − 1.2 (− 3.0, 0.6) 0.1 (− 1.6, 1.9)
 GAI 1.3 (− 2.5, 5.6) 5.6a(0.6, 11.1) − 1.5 (− 3.3, 0.2) 1.1 (− 0.6, 2.9) − 0.9 (− 2.9, 1.1) 1.7 (− 0.2, 3.6) −1.2 (− 2.9, 0.7) 0.3 (− 1.5, 2.4)
 CPI 0.6 (− 3.1, 4.5) 2.1 (− 2.8, 7.0) − 1.2 (− 2.8, 0.5) −1.1 (− 2.8, 0.6) 0.5 (− 1.2, 2.2) −0.1 (− 2.0, 1.8) −1.4 (− 3.1, 0.3) −0.1 (− 1.8, 1.5)
 WMI 1.9 (−2.1, 6.1) 5.3a (0.6, 10.0) −0.6 (− 2.3, 1.2) 0.9 (− 1.0, 2.6) − 0.4 (− 2.2, 1.4) 0.8 (− 1.1, 2.3) −1.0 (− 2.8, 0.6) −0.1 (− 1.9, 1.6)
 PSI 1.9 (− 1.7, 5.6) −1.2 (− 6.2, 3.1) 0.1 (− 1.6, 1.6) − 0.1 (− 1.6, 1.6) −0.3 (− 2.1, 1.5) −0.6 (− 2.3, 1.2) −0.6 (− 2.2, 1.1) −0.2 (− 1.9, 1.6)
 PRI − 0.4 (− 4.1, 3.3) 1.3 (− 3.3, 6.4) −0.2 (− 1.9, 1.5) 0.9 (− 0.7, 2.6) −1.4 (− 3.3, 0.5) 0.7 (− 1.1, 2.5) −0.7 (− 2.3, 1.1) 0.1 (− 1.7, 1.8)
 VCI 2.4 (− 1.6, 6.5) 7.1a (1.4, 12.7) −1.5 (− 3.3, 0.2) 0.7 (− 1.2, 2.6) 0.3 (− 1.6, 2.2) 1.4 (− 0.4, 3.3) −1.2 (− 2.9, 0.8) 1.0 (− 0.7, 3.0)
CANTAB
 Between errors 3.0 (−1.1, 7.1) − 1.1 (− 6.5, 4.2) −0.5 (− 2.1, 1.4) 2.2a (0.3, 3.9) 0.3 (− 1.5, 2.2) −1.6 (− 3.4, 0.4) −0.1 (− 2, 1.6) −0.6 (− 2.5, 1.2)
 Proportion of successful stops 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.05) − 0.001 (− 0.04, 0.04) −0.01. (− 0.02, 0.001) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.002) 0.002 (− 0.01, 0.02) −0.003 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.01 (− 0.002, 0.02) 0.01 (− 0.001, 0.03)
 Stop signal reaction time −0.05 (− 0.1, 0.02) −0.03 (− 0.1, 0.1) 0.05a (0.02, 0.1) 0.02 (− 0.02, 0.04) 0.03 (− 0.003, 0.1) −0.02 (− 0.05, 0.01) −0.003 (− 0.03, 0.03) −0.01 (− 0.04, 0.02)
  1. Notes: Linear mixed effect model β coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for SES and all biomarkers for the association with IQ and its sub-scores. All the models were adjusted for age, sex, maternal SPM, HOME total score, and distance from the point source
  2. SES Socio-economic status, UAs Urinary arsenic, UCd Urinary cadmium, UHg Urinary mercury, HHg Hair mercury, BPb Blood lead, HMn Hair manganese, BSe Blood selenium, WISC-IV Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children edition IV, IQ Intellectual Quotient, VCI Verbal Comprehension Index, PRI Visual-Perceptual Reasoning Index, WMI Working Memory Index, PSI Processing Speed Index, GAI General Ability Index, CPI Cognitive Proficiency Index, CANTAB Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery
  3. . Nearly significant difference from 0
  4. aStatistically significant difference from 0