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Table 2 Pooled cohort study of asbestos cement workers in Italy. Cause specific mortality by gender and selected diseases

From: Cumulative asbestos exposure and mortality from asbestos related diseases in a pooled analysis of 21 asbestos cement cohorts in Italy

  Males Females
Cause of death OBS EXP SMR 95% CI OBS EXP SMR 95% CI
All causes 5591 4599.02 1.23 ** 1.19 1.26 1035 771.34 1.34 ** 1.26 1.43
Malignant neoplasm (MN) 2342 1589.36 1.47 ** 1.41 1.53 414 242.81 1.71 ** 1.55 1.88
MN lip, oral cavity and pharynx 29 42.97 0.68 * 0.45 0.97 5 2.56 1.95 0.63 4.56
MN digestive organs (incl peritoneum) 639 544.87 1.17 * 1.08 1.27 130 86.24 1.51 ** 1.26 1.79
MN oesophagus 39 31.89 1.22 0.87 1.67 1.72
MN stomach 136 139.59 0.97 0.82 1.15 22 16.71 1.32 0.83 1.99
MN small intestine 6 2.81 2.14 0.78 4.65 0.47
MN colon 117 102.34 1.14 0.95 1.37 26 20.10 1.29 0.85 1.90
MN rectum 40 45.90 0.87 0.62 1.19 11 7.74 1.42 0.71 2.54
MN of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts 102 103.33 0.99 0.81 1.20 10 11.53 0.87 0.42 1.60
MN peritoneum 102 7.19 14.19 ** 11.57 17.23 31 2.05 15.14 ** 10.29 21.50
MN respiratory organs 1184 552.55 2.14 ** 2.02 2.27 130 25.93 5.01 ** 4.19 5.95
MN larynx 50 41.83 1.20 0.89 1.58 2 0.63 3.16 0.38 11.42
MN lung 820 490.25 1.67 ** 1.56 1.79 38 22.82 1.67 ** 1.18 2.29
MN pleura 305 13.65 22.35 ** 19.91 25.00 89 1.85 48.10 ** 38.63 59.19
MN uterus       21 14.07 1.49 0.92 2.28
MN ovary       19 12.70 1.50 0.90 2.34
MN prostate 93 96.74 0.96 0.78 1.18      
MN bladder 82 70.79 1.16 0.92 1.44 6 3.50 1.71 0.63 3.73
MN kidney 34 37.90 0.90 0.62 1.25 1 4.08 0.25 0.01 1.37
Leukemia and lymphoma 125 108.04 1.16 0.96 1.38 22 20.52 1.07 0.67 1.62
MN unspecified site 64 40.20 1.59 ** 1.23 2.03 8 7.11 1.13 0.49 2.22
Psychiatric diseases 40 38.79 1.03 0.74 1.40 17 12.81 1.33 0.77 2.13
Neurological diseases 60 92.79 0.65 ** 0.49 0.83 14 23.26 0.60 0.33 1.01
Cardiovascular diseases 1444 1657.41 0.87 ** 0.83 0.92 307 304.88 1.01 0.90 1.13
Respiratory diseases 679 307.83 2.21 ** 2.04 2.38 92 37.33 2.47 ** 1.99 3.02
Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma 150 127.31 1.18 1.00 1.38 16 10.60 1.51 0.86 2.45
Asbestosis 348 0.69 507.22 ** 455.32 563.41 51 0.05 1023.34 ** 761.95 1345.52
Other pneumoconioses 32 8.00 4.00 ** 2.74 5.65 1 0.04 8.42 0.63 139.30
Digestive diseases 276 281.56 0.98 0.87 1.10 45 40.54 1.11 0.81 1.49
Genitourinary diseases 53 59.76 0.89 0.66 1.16 13 10.39 1.25 0.67 2.14
Accidents and violence 221 234.61 0.94 0.82 1.08 35 28.69 1.22 0.85 1.70
Poorly specified causes 77 29.82 2.58 ** 2.04 3.23 24 8.37 2.87 ** 1.84 4.27
Unknown causes (in “All causes” only) 230      25     
  1. OBS: observed; EXP: expected; SMR: standardized mortality ratio; CI: confidence interval. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01