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Table 3 Pooled cohort study of asbestos cement workers in Italy. Mortality by gender and cumulative exposure for selected causes of death

From: Cumulative asbestos exposure and mortality from asbestos related diseases in a pooled analysis of 21 asbestos cement cohorts in Italy

Tertile of the index of cumulative exposure (fibre-type-weighted-Cumulative Exposure Index)
MALES I (< 54.0 ff/ml - year)   II (54.0–620.0 ff/ml - year)   III (>  620.0 ff/ml - year)   trend
Cause of death n SMR (95% CI) n SMR (95% CI) n SMR (95% CI) p
 All causes 1038 1.15 (1.08–1.22) 1919 1.16 (1.10–1.21) 2634 1.32 (1.27–1.37) < 0.001
 Malignant neoplasm 425 1.26 (1.14–1.38) 765 1.31 (1.22–1.40) 1152 1.73 (1.63–1.84) < 0.001
 MN stomach 38 1.36 (0.96–1.36) 45 0.89 (0.65–1.19) 53 0.87 (0.65–1.14)  
 MN colon 24 1.07 (0.68–1.59) 40 1.08 (0.77–1.47) 53 1.24 (0.93–1.62)  
 MN rectum 11 1.18 (0.59–2.12) 13 0.80 (0.43–1.37) 16 0.79 (0.45–1.27)  
 MN peritoneum 3 1.83 (0.38–5.35) 24 9.34 (5.98–13.90) 75 25.18 (19.80–31.56) < 0.001
 MN respiratory organs 188 1.61 (1.38–1.85) 375 1.81 (1.63–2.00) 621 2.73 (2.52–2.95) < 0.001
 MN larynx 13 1.65 (0.88–2.82) 19 1.24 (0.75–1.94) 18 0.96 (0.57–1.52)  
 MN lung 136 1.30 (1.09–1.54) 251 1.36 (1.19–1.53) 433 2.16 (1.96–2.37) < 0.001
 MN pleura 36 11.27 (7.89–15.60) 100 20.77 (16.90–25.27) 169 29.97 (25.62–34.84) < 0.001
 Respiratory diseases 46 0.93 (0.68–1.25) 210 1.89 (1.64–2.16) 423 2.88 (2.61–3.16) < 0.001
 Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma 20 1.19 (0.73–1.84) 73 1.58 (1.24–1.98) 57 0.89 (0.67–1.15)  
 Asbestosis 5 50.03 (16.24–116.76) 75 340.69 (267.98–427.06) 268 732.19 (647.14–825.30) < 0.001
 Cardiovascular diseases 280 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 523 0.87 (0.80–0.95) 641 0.83 (0.77–0.90) 0.04
 Digestive diseases 59 1.14 (0.87–1.47) 100 0.95 (0.77–1.15) 117 0.94 (0.78–1.13)  
 Accidents and violence 79 1.12 (0.89–1.40) 73 0.90 (0.70–1.13) 69 0.83 (0.65–1.05)  
FEMALES I II III  
Causes of death n SMR (95% CI) n SMR (95% CI) n SMR (95% CI)  
 All causes 134 1.24 (1.04–1.47) 328 1.20 (1.08–1.34) 573 1.47 (1.35–1.59) 0.010
 Malignant neoplasm 54 1.29 (0.97–1.69) 136 1.47 (1.23–1.74) 224 2.06 (1.80–2.35) < 0.001
 MN stomach 5 2.05 (0.66–4.77) 9 1.53 (0.70–2.91) 8 0.95 (0.41–1.88)  
 MN colon 4 1.22 (0.33–3.13) 8 1.08 (0.47–2.13) 14 1.48 (0.81–2.49)  
 MN rectum 2 1.71 (0.21–6.19) 2 0.73 (0.09–2.62) 7 1.83 (0.74–3.78)  
 MN peritoneum 2 6.16 (0.75–22.25) 3 4.00 (0.82–11.67) 26 26.77 (17.49–39.22) < 0.001
 MN respiratory organs 12 2.38 (1.23–4.16) 45 4.42 (3.22–5.91) 73 6.82 (5.35–8.58) < 0.001
 MN larynx 0 1 4.23 (0.11–23.59) 1 3.52 (0.09–19.63)  
 MN lung 3 0.66 (0.14–1.93) 22 2.43 (1.52–3.67) 13 1.41 (0.75–2.41)  
 MN pleura 8 29.05 (12.54–57.25) 22 32.97 (20.66–49.92) 59 64.99 (49.47–83.83) 0.002
 MN ovary 3 1.26 (0.26–3.69 3 0.61 (0.13–1.79) 13 2.40 (1.28–4.10)  
 Respiratory diseases 6 1.31 (0.48–2.84) 23 1.84 (1.17–2.76) 63 3.11 (2.39–3.98) 0.006
 Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma 2 1.98 (0.24–7.16) 6 1.81 (0.66–3.94) 8 1.28 (0.55–2.51)  
 Asbestosis 0 10 696.53 (333.99–1280.93) 41 1354.40 (971.93–1837.39) < 0.001
 Cardiovascular diseases 36 1.06 (0.75–1.47) 101 1.02 (0.83–1.23) 170 0.99 (0.85–1.15)  
 Digestive diseases 9 1.59 (0.73–3.01) 19 1.24 (0.75–1.93) 17 0.87 (0.51–1.40)  
 Accidents and violence 10 2.02 (0.97–3.71) 6 0.60 (0.22–1.31) 19 1.38 (0.83–2.15)  
  1. Fibre-type-weighted-CEI: Index of cumulative exposure adjusted for the type of asbestos used; see text for details. n: observed; SMR: standardized mortality ratio; 95%CI: confidence intervals; p for the chi square test for linear trend reported if < 0.05