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Table 3 Estimated percent increase in mortality (95% CI) associated with one standard deviation of z-score Kp index adjusted for PM2.5

From: Geomagnetic disturbances driven by solar activity enhance total and cardiovascular mortality risk in 263 U.S. cities

  Total CVD MI Stroke
Winter 0.47 (0.3,0.65)**** 0.54 (0.23,0.84)*** 1.0 (0.4,1.62)*** 0.35(− 0.27,0.97)
Spring −0.03(− 0.2,0.14) 0.28(− 0.01,0.57) 0.5(− 0.2,1.17) −0.13(− 0.72,0.45)
Summer 0.22 (0.05,0.4)** 0.16(−0.03,0.35) −0.25(− 0.92,0.4) 0.24(− 0.44,0.92)
Fall 0.23 (0.09,0.37)** 0.46 (0.23,0.7)**** 0.36(−0.24,0.96) −0.3(− 0.81,0.22)
  1. *p-value < 0.05; **p < 0.001; ***p < 0.0001; ****p < 0.00001