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Table 1 Cohort characteristics at baseline

From: Personal carbon monoxide exposure, respiratory symptoms, and the potentially modifying roles of sex and HIV infection in rural Uganda: a cohort study

  Total Cohort
(n = 260)
HIV +
(n = 131)
HIV –
(n = 129)
Age, years 51 [48, 56] 52 [49, 56] 51 [48, 55]
Female sex 123 (47) 61 (47) 62 (48)
Smoking History
 Never Smoker 133 (51) 73 (56) 60 (47)
 Former Smoker 86 (33) 47 (36) 39 (30)
 Current Smoker 41 (16) 11 (8) 20 (23)
 Years of Smokinga 20 [10, 32] 16 [10, 25] 26 [11, 35]
Farmer 177 (68) 70 (53) 107 (83)
Rural dwelling 221 (85) 92 (70) 129 (100)
Education
 Did not complete primary school 143 (55) 63 (48) 80 (62)
 Completed primary school 91 (35) 53 (40) 38 (29)
 Completed secondary school 26 (10) 15 (11) 11 (9)
HIV Characteristics
 HIV viral load, copies/μL
  Undetectable   122 (94)  
  Detectable, up to 10,000   6 (5)  
  > 10,000   2 (2)  
 CD4 T-cell count, cells/mm3
  ≥ 500   54 (41)  
  350–499   51 (39)  
  < 350   26 (20)  
 Taking antiretroviral therapy   131 (100)  
 Antiretroviral therapy duration, years   9 [8, 10]  
Self-reported personal air quality
 Excellent or Very good 143 (55) 75 (57) 68 (53)
 Fair 69 (27) 36 (27) 33 (26)
 Poor or Very poor 48 (18) 20 (15) 28 (22)
Cooking fuel
 Firewood 221 (85) 94 (73) 127 (98)
 Charcoal 37 (14) 35 (27) 2 (2)
Cooking location
 Inside the main house 6 (2) 6 (5) 0 (0)
 Inside a separate structure 232 (89) 107 (82) 125 (97)
 Outside 22 (8) 18 (14) 4 (3)
  Distance from house, metersb 1 [0, 5] 1 [0, 5] 4 [3, 5]
Trash burning near home
 None 98 (38) 55 (42) 43 (33)
 < 1 times/week 108 (42) 47 (36) 61 (47)
 1–6 times/week 52 (20) 29 (22) 23 (18)
 At least daily 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (2)
  Distance from home, metersc 20 [10, 50] 20 [10, 50] 20 [10, 50]
Home lighting source
 Electricity, solar power 84 (32) 62 (47) 22 (17)
 Kerosene 141 (54) 41 (31) 100 (78)
 Battery 26 (10) 20 (15) 6 (5)
 Candles 6 (2) 5 (4) 1 (1)
Home ventilation
 Rooms in house 3 [3, 4] 3 [2, 4] 4 [3, 4]
 Windows in house 4 [3, 5] 4 [2, 4] 4 [4, 5]
 Doors in house 2 [2, 2] 2 [1, 2] 2 [2, 2]
  1. Median [IQR], n (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. a Current/former smokers only; b For those who don’t cook in the main house; c For those who burn trash near their homes