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Table 3 Cox proportional hazard ratios for non-accidental mortalitya and PM2.5 exposure, all respondents, 10% inclusion threshold

From: Low concentrations of fine particle air pollution and mortality in the Canadian Community Health Survey cohort

Model   95% CI  
HR Lower Upper -2 LL
Unadjusted (stratified by age, sex, and cycle) 0.96 0.92 1.00 769,047.51
Socio-economic covariates (Unadjusted model +)
 Visible minority identity 0.98 0.93 1.02 768,923.2
 Indigenous identity 0.98 0.94 1.03 768,812.8
 Immigrant status 1.02 0.98 1.07 768,784.2
 Educational attainment 1.05 1.01 1.10 767,553.7
 Marital status 0.92 0.88 0.96 767,479.4
 Income quintile 0.94 0.90 0.98 766,080.2
 Adjusted by socio-economic covariates* 1.05 1.00 1.09 764,396.4
Behavioural level covariates (Unadjusted model +)
 Fruit and vegetable consumption 1.00 0.96 1.05 768,304.6
 Leisure exercise frequency 1.00 0.96 1.05 768,304.6
 Alcohol consumption 1.04 1.00 1.09 766,726.1
 Smoking behaviours 0.97 0.93 1.02 762,432.6
 Adjusted by all socio-economic + behavioural covariates 1.09 1.05 1.15 756,074.0
Contextual covariates (Adjusted by socio-economic covariates +)
 Ethnic concentration 1.00 0.95 1.05 764,411.6
 Material deprivation 1.04 0.99 1.09 764,411.2
 Residential instability 1.06 1.01 1.11 764,408.0
 Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration size 1.04 0.98 1.09 764,401.7
 Airshed 1.11 1.05 1.17 764,378.8
 Dependency 1.03 0.98 1.08 764,314.1
 Adjusted by all socio-economic + contextual covariates* 1.13 1.06 1.21 764,157.5
Contextual covariates (Adjusted by socio-economic + behavioural covariates +)
 Ethnic concentration 1.05 1.00 1.10 756,050.7
 Material deprivation 1.12 1.07 1.17 756,049.0
 Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration size 1.05 0.99 1.10 756,039.5
 Dependency 1.08 1.03 1.13 755,985.4
 Airshed 1.11 1.05 1.17 755,969.1
 Residential instability 1.08 1.03 1.13 755,962.9
 Final model (Adjusted by all socio-economic + behavioural + contextual covariates) 1.11 1.04 1.18 755,760.2
  1. adue to a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration