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Table 4 Examination of effect modification for non-accidental mortalitya for the cohort through Cox proportional hazards models and Cochrane’s Q

From: Low concentrations of fine particle air pollution and mortality in the Canadian Community Health Survey cohort

   95% CI
  HR Lower Upper
Full cohortb 1.11 1.04 1.18
Sex
 Male 1.13 1.03 1.23
 Female 1.09 0.99 1.19
 Pooled HR 1.11 1.04 1.18
Age
 Under 65 1.14 1.01 1.29
 65–74 1.13 1.01 1.27
 75 or over 1.04 0.94 1.16
 Pooled HR 1.10 1.03 1.17
Immigrant status
 Non-immigrants 1.14 1.07 1.23
 Immigrantsb 0.98 0.83 1.16
 Pooled HR 1.12 1.05 1.19
Educational attainment
 No high school 1.08 0.98 1.19
 High school graduate 1.14 1.04 1.24
 Pooled HR 1.11 1.04 1.19
Fruit and vegetable consumption (servings per day)
 Less than five 1.10 1.01 1.20
 Five or more 1.16 1.04 1.30
 Pooled HR 1.12 1.05 1.20
Alcohol consumption
 Never or former drinker 1.01* 0.90 1.12
 Occasional or regular drinker 1.18* 1.09 1.28
 Pooled HR 1.12 1.05 1.19
Smoking behaviours
 Never or former smoker 1.11 1.03 1.20
 Daily or occasional smoker 1.13 0.99 1.27
 Pooled HR 1.12 1.05 1.19
Oxidant capacityc
 Low OX 0.92* 0.81 1.04
 High OX 1.16* 1.07 1.26
 Pooled HR 1.08 1.01 1.16
  1. adue to a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration
  2. bexcludes immigrants who have been living in Canada for fewer than ten years
  3. cabove or below the median value of Oxidant Capacity of all person-years (26.19 ppb)
  4. *Cochrane’s Q p<0.05