Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in Sirajdikhan and Pabna upazilas, Bangladesh

From: Determinants of arsenic methylation efficiency and urinary arsenic level in pregnant women in Bangladesh

  Sirajdikhan (N = 879) Pabna (N = 727) All mothers (N = 1176)
Years of age, visit 1a
  22.8 ± 4.1 23.0 ± 4.2 22.9 ± 4.2
Education levelb
  < Secondary education 446 (51%) 335 (46%) 781 (49%)
  ≥ Secondary education 431 (49%) 389 (54%) 820 (51%)
BMI, visit 1 (kg/m2)
  21.0 ± 3.3 20.0 ± 2.9 21.0 ± 3.0
Financial provider’s monthly income (taka)
 Unknown 9 (1%) 23 (3%) 32 (2%)
 0–2000 5 (1%) 10 (1%) 15 (1%)
 2001–3000 39 (4%) 197 (27%) 236 (15%)
 3001–4000 178 (20%) 222 (31%) 400 (25%)
 4001–5000 328 (37%) 167 (23%) 495 (31%)
 5000–6000 190 (22%) 63 (9%) 253 (16%)
  > 6000 129 (15%) 44 (6%) 173 (11%)
Gestational weeks, visit 1
  11.1 ± 3.1 11.4 ± 3.0 11 ± 3.0
Gestational weeks, visit 2
  28.6 ± 1.8 29.3 ± 1.9 28.9 ± 1.9
Environmental smoke exposure
 No 555 (63%) 370 (51%) 925 (58%)
 Yes 322 (37%) 356 (49%) 678 (42%)
Number of glasses of water drank per day
  7.7 ± 2.3 7.7 ± 2.4 8 ± 2.0
Drinking water arsenic exposure categories
 Quartile 1: ≤0.89 μg/L 309 (35%) 92 (13%) 401 (25%)
 Quartile 2: 0.89–2 μg/L 397 (45%) 24 (3%) 421 (26%)
 Quartile 3: 2–33 μg/L 103 (12%) 278 (38%) 381 (24%)
 Quartile 4: > 33 μg/L 69 (8%) 332 (46%) 401 (25%)
Drinking water arsenic (μg/L), visit 1
  12.1 ± 47.4 79.5 ± 131 42.6 ± 101
 Median 1.4 27.0 2.0
Drinking water arsenic (μg/L), one-month post-partumc
  6.8 ± 32.5 78.9 ± 133 42.7 ± 103
 Median 1.0 26.0 1.8
Maternal toenail arsenic (μg/g), visit 1
  2.2 ± 3.2 4.8 ± 5.9 3.4 ± 4.9
 Median 1.1 2.5 1.7
Maternal toenail arsenic (μg/g), one-month post-partumd
  1.8 ± 3.6 3.6 ± 4.2 2.7 ± 4.0
 Median 0.7 2.0 1.2
Daily dietary folate intake (μg)
  268 ± 96.7 396 ± 103 327 ± 118
Daily dietary protein intake (g)
  131 ± 47.9 219.3 ± 60.0 172 ± 69.6
Daily energy intake (kcal)
  3195 ± 978 3234 ± 763 3214 ± 885
  1. a Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. b Categorical variables are presented as number of participants (percentage)
  3. c Pearson’s correlation of drinking water arsenic concentration between the first visit and one-month post-partum is 0.72 (p < 0.0001)
  4. d Pearson’s correlation of toenail arsenic concentration between the first visit and one-month post-partum is 0.84