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Table 1 Baseline (1998–1991) Participant Characteristics by Airflow Obstruction and Restrictive Pattern at Visit 2 (1993–1995) (N = 2132)

From: Low-moderate arsenic exposure and respiratory in American Indian communities in the Strong Heart Study

 Airflow obstructionRestrictive PatternHealthy
FEV1/FVC < 0.70
(n = 458)
FEV1/FVC > 0.70
FVC < 80% predicted
(n = 307)
FEV1/FVC > 0.70
FVC > 80% predicted
(n = 1367)
Age, years59.2 (0.3)56.1 (0.5)54.5 (0.2)
Female226 (49.3%)206 (67.1%)860 (62.9%)
Education
 No high school (HS)122 (26.6%)68 (21.1%)187 (13.7%)
 Some HS111 (24.2%)69 (22.4%)313 (22.9%)
 Completed HS or higher225 (49.2%)170 (55.4%)867 (63.4%)
Smoking status
 Never113 (24.7%)109 (35.5%)451 (33.0%)
 Former134 (29.3%)91 (29.6%)443 (32.4%)
 Current211 (46.1%)107 (34.9%)473 (34.6%)
Smoking pack years18.2 (0.9)9.2 (0.7)8.2 (0.3)
BMI, kg/m229.0 (0.2)33.0 (0.4)31.4 (0.2)
Diabetes168 (36.7%)185 (60.3%)539 (39.4%)
Urine ∑As, μg/g creatinine11.1 (6.2–16.1)12.0 (6.2–20.2)9.5 (5.6–15.7)
iAs, %8.5 (5.9–11.7)7.6 (5.6–10.7)7.7 (5.5–11.0)
MMA, %14.7 (11.3–18.5)12.8 (10.5–16.2)13.8 (10.8–17.2)
FEV1, %predicted77.7 (0.8)73.6 (0.6)100.2 (0.3)
FVC, %predicted93.9 (0.8)69.4 (0.5)98.6 (0.3)
FEV1/FVC, %62.2 (0.3)81.4 (0.4)78.2 (0.1)
Inhaled steroids8 (1.7%)8 (2.6%)36 (2.6%)
Self-reported chronic bronchitis59 (13.0%)49 (16.1%)112 (8.3%)
Self-reported emphysema34 (7.5%)19 (6.3%)25 (1.8%)
Self-reported asthma59 (13.1%)40 (13.1%)87 (6.4%)
Medical record tuberculosis83 (18.1%)54 (17.6%)155 (11.3%)
Self-reported cough140 (30.6%)84 (27.5%)252 (18.5%)
Cough 4–6x/week92 (64.8%)54 (63.5%)158 (61.5%)
Phlegm89 (62.2%)51 (60.0%)161 (59.9%)
Shortness of breath221 (48.6%)169 (57.1%)585 (43.1%)
Stopping for breath97 (41.8%)72 (42.4%)186 (31.3%)
  1. All analyses are weighted. Data are mean (SE), n (% of column), or median (interquartile range)
  2. ∑As = inorganic arsenic plus methylated species