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Table 2 Participant Characteristics by Baseline (1998–1991) Urinary Arsenic Concentration (N = 2132)

From: Low-moderate arsenic exposure and respiratory in American Indian communities in the Strong Heart Study

 Inorganic Plus Methylated Arsenic Species μg/g creatinineP-valueb
Tertile 1Tertile 2Tertile 3
≤7.0a7.1–13.9a≥14.0a
Age, years55.655.656.00.37
Female494 (56.0%)443 (61.1%)355 (67.6%)< 0.001
Education   < 0.001
 No high school (HS)80 (9.1%)149 (20.6%)148 (28.2%) 
 Some HS202 (22.9%)160 (22.1%)131 (25.0%) 
 Completed HS or higher600 (68.0%)416 (57.4%)246 (46.9%) 
BMI, kg/m230.8 (0.1)31.3 (0.2)31.6 (0.3)0.01
Diabetes317 (35.9%)296 (40.8%)279 (53.1%)< 0.001
Smoking status   0.06
 Never292 (33.9%)214 (29.5%)167 (31.8%) 
 Former288 (32.6%)235 (32.4%)145 (27.6%) 
 Current302 (34.2%)276 (38.1%)213 (40.5%) 
Smoking pack years11.4 (0.4)10.8 (0.4)8.9 (0.5)< 0.001
FEV1, %predicted92.8 (0.4)92.5 (0.6)88.7 (0.7)< 0.001
FVC, %predicted93.3 (0.4)95.0 (0.6)90.3 (0.7)< 0.001
FEV1/FVC, %76.1 (0.2)74.9 (0.3)75.6 (0.4)0.21
Airflow obstructionc157 (20.7%)167 (26.3%)134 (31.0%)0.02
Restrictive patternc125 (17.2%)89 (15.9%)93 (23.8%)< 0.001
Self-reported chronic bronchitis82 (9.2%)78 (10.8%)60 (11.4%)0.59
Self-reported emphysema33 (3.7%)26 (3.6%)19 (3.6%)0.43
Self-reported asthma77 (8.8%)65 (9.0%)44 (8.4%)0.51
Medical record tuberculosis133 (15.1%)99 (13.7%)60 (11.4%)0.02
  1. All analyses are weighted. Data are mean (SE) or n (% of tertile)
  2. aTertiles are range; calculated based on overall population; sum of inorganic and methylated species μg/g creatinine
  3. bFor continuous variables, ANOVA was used to calculate p-value; for categorical variables, chi-square test was used
  4. cFixed airflow obstruction: FEV1/FVC < 0.70
  5. cRestrictive pattern: FEV1/FVC > 0.70 & FVC < 80% predicted