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Table 3 Weighted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of Airflow Obstruction and Restrictive Pattern, Defined Based on Fixed Ratios, by Urinary Arsenic Concentration

From: Low-moderate arsenic exposure and respiratory in American Indian communities in the Strong Heart Study

 Inorganic Plus Methylated Arsenic Species μg/g creatinineP-trende
Tertile 1
≤7.0d
Tertile 2
7.1–13.9d
Tertile 3
≥14.0d
75th vs. 25th Percentilef 
Airflow obstructiona/Healthyb157/600167/469134/298458/1367 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)1.15 (0.93, 1.43)1.45 (1.10, 1.91)1.27 (1.08, 1.51)0.005
 Model 21.00 (Ref)1.11 (0.89, 1.39)1.34 (1.01, 1.77)1.21 (1.01, 1.43)0.03
 Model 31.00 (Ref)1.12 (0.90, 1.40)1.33 (0.99, 1.77)1.17 (0.99, 1.38)0.07
 Model 41.00 (Ref)1.12 (0.90, 1.41)1.33 (0.99, 1.79)1.17 (0.99, 1.40)0.07
Restrictive patternc/ Healthyb125/60089/46993/298307/1367 
 Model 11.00 (Ref)0.92 (0.69, 1.23)1.32 (0.92, 1.91)1.25 (0.99, 1.57)0.06
 Model 21.00 (Ref)0.91 (0.68, 1.22)1.30 (0.90, 1.89)1.23 (0.98, 1.55)0.07
 Model 31.00 (Ref)0.92 (0.68, 1.23)1.34 (0.92, 1.96)1.27 (1.01, 1.60)0.04
 Model 41.00 (Ref)0.88 (0.65, 1.19)1.16 (0.78, 1.73)1.18 (0.93, 1.50)0.18
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, education, site
  2. Model 2: further adjusted for smoking status and smoking pack-year
  3. Model 3: further adjusted for eGFR, tuberculosis, and BMI
  4. Model 4: sensitivity analysis: further adjusted for diabetes
  5. aFixed airflow obstruction: FEV1/FVC < 0.70
  6. bHealthy: FEV1/FVC > 0.70 & FVC > 80% predicted
  7. cRestrictive pattern: FEV1/FVC > 0.70 & FVC < 80% predicted
  8. dTertiles are range; calculated based on overall population; sum of iAs, MMA, DMA μg/g creatinine
  9. eP-trend calculated modeling log-arsenic as continuous
  10. fComparison of the 75th and 25th percentiles (interquartile range) of urinary arsenic concentrations (16.7 vs. 5.8 μg/g creatinine)