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Table 4 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and reaction time over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B (SE)
Model 1Model 2
Variables a.NMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL1*Time
SOD (U/ml) 1st347.98±2.17538.61±3.55458.11±3.50.487 (0.278)0.720 (0.278) 0.355 (0.136)
SOD (U/ml) 2nd749.48±5.04827.67±5.1687.79±5.96
SOD (U/ml) 3rd7316.86±7.47419.57±8.777220.3±9.04
SOD (U/ml) 4th7812.67±3.636712.1±2.766511.87±2.9
SOD (U/ml) 5th6413.38±4.685211.88±4.315713.43±4.98
GPx (nmol/min/ml) 1st35117.07±20.6753120.44±16.1844128.02±29.23.652 (1.319) 1.612 (1.470)0.759 (0.724)
GPx (nmol/min/ml) 2nd7495.52±26.188280.47±24.876882.97±25.18
GPx (nmol/min/ml) 3rd73157.11±24.0474153.8±21.972151.17±29.02
GPx (nmol/min/ml) 4th79100.09±14.676899.32±15.3565104.41±14.38
GPx (nmol/min/ml) 5th64129.49±19.4952124.34±16.8557130.91±16.4
%DNA in Tail 1st3513.43±11.745316.69±9.844614.82±8.342.280 (0.792) 2.240 (0.794) 1.075 (0.379)
%DNA in Tail 2nd7533.98±21.378222.47±15.016821.69±20.91
%DNA in Tail 3rd7334.68±22.197426.83±20.597232.28±21.77
%DNA in Tail 4th7918.37±8.366817.69±6.536516.4±7.91
%DNA in Tail 5th6316.06±5.275218.01±6.195715.59±5.25
Tail Moment 1st3517.3±23.25315.16±14.954615.99±16.2116.184 (3.802) 14.495 (3.970) 7.052 (1.790)
Tail Moment 2nd65112.23±106.897848.75±45.966137.22±68.26
Tail Moment 3rd73145.68±129.5574106.66±122.5572143.41±135.74
Tail Moment 4th7935.16±35.076829.16±26.236526.93±29.46
Tail Moment 5th6328.67±18.755130.09±18.035725.11±19.39
Olive Moment 1st358.92±10.45538.8±7.37468.42±6.86.188 (1.698) 6.302 (1.678) 2.990 (0.768)
Olive Moment 2nd6143.81±42.997721.71±15.585912.96±12.98
Olive Moment 3rd7377.18±73.517453.61±67.17273.93±75.04
Olive Moment 4th7916.92±14.566814.57±11.316513.17±12.17
Olive Moment 5th6313.77±7.115114.65±7.645712.93±9.18
L/H ratio 1st350.99±0.92530.96±0.61460.99±0.730.006 (0.036)0.025 (0.035)0.012 (0.018)
L/H ratio 2nd741.08±0.87811.02±0.9680.81±0.86
L/H ratio 3rd710.7±0.67730.51±0.63710.66±0.7
L/H ratio 4th770.23±0.12680.22±0.1650.21±0.13
L/H ratio 5th630.2±0.08500.21±0.08570.19±0.08
  1. a.times of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. p-values interaction term <0.01 in the GEE model
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: SOD) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, chewing betel nut, and education.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: GPx) includes main effects of sex, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and atopic dermatitis.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: %DNA in Tail) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, and education.
  6. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Tail Moment) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  7. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Olive Moment) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  8. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: L/H ratio) includes main effects of sex, smoking, and atopic dermatitis.