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Table 5 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of cardiovascular disease markers over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B (SE)
Model 1Model 2
VariablesaNMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL1*Time
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 1st35263.56 ± 45.1753274.17 ± 49.1446286.77 ± 67.83-3.420 (3.136)-6.490 (3.494)-3.248 (1.746)
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 2nd75249.49 ± 43.2880263.08 ± 56.2867261.08 ± 51.43
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 3rd72219.14 ± 42.7374217.83 ± 42.3372225.28 ± 43.47
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 4th75213.5 ± 54.1567225.52 ± 57.3863218.51 ± 62.15
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 5th64221.2 ± 54.4152225.57 ± 61.4857219.59 ± 66.26
VCAM (ng/mL) 1st34612.9 ± 151.4853590.67 ± 178.7646642.79 ± 203.85-24.322 (10.469) -33.739 (10.115) -16.788(4.937)
VCAM (ng/mL) 2nd75462.74 ± 160.7481516.37 ± 166.8668514.06 ± 164.67
VCAM (ng/mL) 3rd71429.03 ± 127.8372426.52 ± 139.2671393.77 ± 131.75
VCAM (ng/mL) 4th79372.81 ± 101.6268359.93 ± 100.0564375.79 ± 109.01
VCAM (ng/mL) 5th64565.41 ± 106.7452563.16 ± 103.2956569.2 ± 126.19
ICAM (ng/mL) 1st35505.42 ± 137.6853463.57 ± 136.3646498.75 ± 150.272.674 (8.871)-0.024 (8.996)0.243 (4.505)
ICAM (ng/mL) 2nd75443.67 ± 202.9881525.75 ± 197.9467538.21 ± 218.68
ICAM (ng/mL) 3rd73421.23 ± 124.2173449.52 ± 137.3471435.78 ± 138.17
ICAM (ng/mL) 4th79331.37 ± 128.3168338.84 ± 119.7265321.29 ± 132.41
ICAM (ng/mL) 5th64222.29 ± 64.6152196.7 ± 54.2256240.85 ± 83.54
hsCRP (mg/L) 1st330.61 ± 0.55510.72 ± 0.6390.81 ± 0.92-0.071 (0.044)-0.038 (0.055)-0.022 (0.276)
hsCRP (mg/L) 2nd750.7 ± 0.77740.76 ± 0.88640.64 ± 0.71
hsCRP (mg/L) 3rd670.81 ± 0.9691 ± 1.05691.04 ± 1.08
hsCRP (mg/L) 4th760.75 ± 0.77600.73 ± 0.8610.92 ± 0.83
hsCRP (mg/L) 5th630.94 ± 0.97461.06 ± 1.23540.93 ± 0.94
  1. atimes of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. p<0.01; 0.01<p<0.05
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Fibrinogen) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, chewing betel nut, and education.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: VCAM) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: ICAM) includes main effects of sex, smoking, and asthma.
  6. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: hsCRP) includes main effects of sex, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.