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Table 6 Generalized estimating equation analysis of ≥ 2 repeated measurements of cardiovascular disease markers over 4 years

From: Longitudinal follow-up of health effects among workers handling engineered nanomaterials: a panel study

 ControlRisk Level 1Risk Level 2GEE analysis coefficient B (SE)
Model 1Model 2
VariablesaNMean ± SDNMean ± SDNMean ± SDRL1*TimeRL2*TimeRL1*Time
IL-6 (pg/mL) 1st359.9 ± 4.04539.27 ± 3.34459.81 ± 4.2-0.314 (0.285) -0.759 (0.276)-0.355 (0.136)
IL-6 (pg/mL) 2nd744.35 ± 3.29825.45 ± 3.83665.54 ± 3.95
IL-6 (pg/mL) 3rd732.79 ± 3.03736.11 ± 11.35723.95 ± 8.53
IL-6 (pg/mL) 4th793.89 ± 7.51683.51 ± 7.77651.71 ± 2.2
IL-6 (pg/mL) 5th463.06 ± 2.29412.49 ± 2.4442.04 ± 1.61
IL-6 sR (ng/mL) 1st3537.88 ± 11.765335.64 ± 10.14634.79 ± 10.650.523 (0.752)0.809 (0.700)0.377 (0.348)
IL-6 sR (ng/mL) 2nd7546.45 ± 11.878240.72 ± 11.046841.14 ± 11.87
IL-6 sR (ng/mL) 3rd7333.87 ± 13.357332.02 ± 127233.77 ± 12.01
IL-6 sR (ng/mL) 4th7931.52 ± 9.916831.63 ± 8.876531.21 ± 9.24
IL-6 sR (ng/mL) 5th6448.57 ± 10.075249.68 ± 10.615746.72 ± 10.2
MPO (ng/mL) 1st3363.14 ± 28.915177.26 ± 53.714384.61 ± 51.55-6.446 (4.372)-6.877 (4.660)-3.600 (2.305)
MPO (ng/mL) 2nd7490.94 ± 36.3881106.97 ± 56.8766117.94 ± 70.02
MPO (ng/mL) 3rd7388.83 ± 47.0174105.16 ± 44.117196.79 ± 43
MPO (ng/mL) 4th79171.54 ± 80.1968166.01 ± 79.8565184.4 ± 94.49
MPO (ng/mL) 5th63164.63 ± 96.9451186.14 ± 128.5957156.37 ± 102.1
Arylesterase 1st34128.67 ± 29.2451128.32 ± 24.0244124.5 ± 25.05-4.563 (1.741) -2869 (1.597)-1.531 (0.789)
Arylesterase 2nd7487.33 ± 29.678299.2 ± 30.376796.48 ± 28.3
Arylesterase 3rd7383.38 ± 13.197480.23 ± 12.037281.22 ± 12.16
Arylesterase 5th6491.88 ± 15.355295.51 ± 20.735790.2 ± 16.5
  1. a.times of measurements (1st: at baseline; 2nd: at 6 months later; 3rd: at 18 months later; 4th: at 30 months later; 5th: at 42 months later)
  2. p-values interaction term <0.01 in the GEE model
  3. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: IL-6) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
  4. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: IL-6 sR) includes main effects of age, sex, and smoking.
  5. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: MPO) includes main effects of age, sex, smoking, drinking, arrhythmia, and hypertension.
  6. Analytical Model (Dependent variable: Arylesterase) includes main effects of sex, and smoking.
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