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Table 4 Associations between water fluoride and sleep measures

From: Fluoride exposure and sleep patterns among older adolescents in the United States: a cross-sectional study of NHANES 2015–2016

OutcomesNEstimates (95% CI)Uncorrected pHolm-Bonferroni corrected p
Sleep duration418 0.487 
 Less than recommended 1.35 (0.83,2.22)0.230.46
 Recommended (ref) 
 More than recommended 1.10 (0.58, 2.11)0.761.00
Sleep apnea symptoms413   
 Never (ref)   
 At least once per week 1.97 (1.27, 3.05)0.0020.02*
Snoring402   
 Never (ref) ---  
 At least once per week 0.62 (0.45, 0.87)a0.0050.03*
Daytime sleepiness419 0.220ǂ 
 Never (ref)   
 Rarely 1.91 (1.08, 3.38)0.030.08
 Sometime 1.50 (0.88, 2.57)0.140.41
 Often 2.06 (1.09, 3.89)0.030.08
 Almost always 1.53 (0.86, 2.74)0.150.46
Trouble sleeping419   
 No (ref)   
 Yes 1.02 (0.64, 1.62)0.930.93
Bedtime4180.40 (0.10, 0.70)0.010.05*
Wake time4180.43 (0.13, 0.73)0.0080.04*
  1. Note. All estimates are odds radios (ORs) except for bedtime and wake time which are unstandardized Beta estimates; ORs and Beta estimates reflect the change in outcome for each IQR (i.e. 0.52 mg/L) increase in water fluoride concentration. Regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and ratio of family income to poverty. Reweighted MEC weights were applied to these regression analyses; *Significant at p ≤ 0.05 after Holm-Bonferroni correction. †The p-value for a Type 3 Analysis of Effects with 2 degrees of freedom; ǂ The p-value for a Type 3 Analysis of Effects with 4 degrees of freedom; a. Odds ratio for association between water fluoride and snoring among males; interaction between sex and water fluoride in predicting snoring (B = 1.35, p < 0.001)