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Table 2 Characteristics of the five prospective studies of fluoride exposure and children’s cognitive and neurobehavioral, developmental and cognitive outcomes

From: Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: an updated review

ReferenceStudy location, yearNo. in high-exposure groupNo. in reference groupAge range (or mean), yearsFluoride exposureOutcome measureResults
AssessmentRange or mean (mg/L)
[114]New Zealand, 19861028 (total)N/a0–7Drinking water fluoridationN/aRBSa and CBRSbNo association between duration of residence in fluoridated community and behavioral problems
[115]New Zealand, 2015992 (total)N/a5 and 7–13Water fluoridation, supplementsN/aWISCcNo significant association found between tablet use, use of fluoride toothpaste, or childhood community water fluoridation and IQ, respectively
[63]Mexico, 2017287 (total)N/a4 and 6–12Maternal urinary fluoride (MUF)0.88 (mean)MSCAd; WASIeHigher MUF levels were associated with lower scores on cognitive function tests in offspring
[24]Mexico, 2017211 (total)N/a3–15 monthsDrinking water and MUF0.5–12.5 (water); 0.16–4.9 (MUF, 1st trimester); 0.7–6.0 (MUF, 2nd trimester); 1.3–8.2 (MUF, 3rd trimester)BSDI-IIfMUF levels sampled during the 1st and 2nd trimesters were inversely associated with mental development in infants
[116]Canada, 2018275 (city fluoridation)335 (no city fluoridation)3.4MUF, fluoride intake0.06–2.44WPPSI-IIIgHigher MUF levels predicted lower IQ in males but not females; higher maternal fluoride intake predicted lower IQ
  1. aRutter Behavior Rating Scales; bConnors Behavior Rating Scales; cWechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; dMcCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities; eWechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; fBayley Scale of Infant Development II; gWechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition