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Table 3 Adjusted differences in cognitive outcomes per mg fluoride per liter maternal urine (U-fluoride) during pregnancy, and benchmark dose results (boys and girls) in regard to maternal urinary fluoride excretion (mg/L urine adjusted for creatinine)

From: Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: an updated review

StudyReferenceNumberOutcomeU-fluoride (median)Estimate95% CIBMDBMDL
ELEMENT[63]287GCI0.84−6.3−10.8; − 1.70.160.10
ELEMENT[63]211IQ0.82−5.0−8.2; − 1.20.200.13
MIREC[116]512IQ0.51−2.0− 5.2; 1.30.510.21