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Table 4 The Effect of PM2.5 on Male and Female Mortality Rates

From: The impact of PM2.5 on mortality in older adults: evidence from retirement of coal-fired power plants in the United States

 Male MortalityFemale Mortality
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
PM2.5 (μg/m3)9.30***9.17***9.89***5.00**4.80**5.50**
(4.75–13.85)(4.60–13.73)(5.15–14.63)(0.76–9.25)(0.63–8.97)(1.16–9.84)
Weather ControlsNYYNYY
Socioeconomic ControlsNNYNNY
County Fixed EffectsYYYYYY
Month Fixed EffectsYYYYYY
Observations827482748274827482748274
  1. Notes: This table reports the instrumental variable regression coefficients and standard errors. Retirement of coal-fired power plants is used as the instrumental variables for monthly PM2.5 concentrations. The dependent variable is the monthly standardized mortality rate per 100, 000 people. Columns 1–3 and 4–6 show estimates for males and females separately. Weather controls include temperature, dew point, and barometric pressure. Socioeconomic controls include median household income and poverty rate. Standard errors are clustered at the state level. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01