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Table 8 The Effect of PM2.5 on Mortalities (Different Number of Matched Control Counties)

From: The impact of PM2.5 on mortality in older adults: evidence from retirement of coal-fired power plants in the United States

  Models
(1) (2) (3)
  Full Sample
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 7.85***
(4.02–11.68)
7.68***
(3.80–11.56)
8.16***
(3.87–12.45)
  Male
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 11.50***
(6.22–16.77)
11.27***
(5.81–16.72)
11.50***
(5.82–17.19)
  Female
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 5.50***
(1.40–9.59)
5.35**
(1.25–9.44)
5.99**
(1.22–10.76)
  Age Groups
PM2.5 (μg/m3)  
Age 65–75 − 0.85
(−3.40–1.71)
−0.85
(− 3.40–1.71)
−0.84
(− 3.58–1.91)
Age 75+ 17.65***
(11.20–24.11)
17.25***
(10.67–23.82)
18.29***
(11.01–25.58)
Weather Controls N Y Y
Socioeconomic Controls N N Y
County Fixed Effects Y Y Y
Month Fixed Effects Y Y Y
  1. Notes: This table reports the instrumental variable regression coefficients and standard errors. Retirement of coal-fired power plants is used as the instrumental variables for monthly PM2.5 concentrations. The dependent variable is the monthly standardized mortality rate per 100, 000 people. We matched only 5 (vs. 10 in main analyses) control counties with each treatment county in this robustness check. Weather controls include temperature, dew point, and barometric pressure. Socioeconomic controls include median household income and poverty rate. Standard errors are clustered at the state level. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01