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Fig. 2 | Environmental Health

Fig. 2

From: The impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on specific causes of death: exposure-response curves and effect modification among 53 million U.S. Medicare beneficiaries

Fig. 2

Modification of the SES-adjusted Association between PM2.5 and Cause-specific Mortality by Age, Sex, and Race. For each cause of death, we examined effect modification using interaction terms for age, sex and race respectively in the SES-adjusted models. Results are expressed as the risk ratio and 95% CIs per 10 μg/m3 increase in 12-month average PM2.5. Abbreviations: IHD (Ischemic heart disease), CBV (Cerebrovascular disease), CHF (Congestive heart failure), COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease), SES (Socio-Economic Status), PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm). Note: Each subgroup in the death-group box follows the same order defined in the figure legend

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