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Fig. 3 | Environmental Health

Fig. 3

From: The impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on specific causes of death: exposure-response curves and effect modification among 53 million U.S. Medicare beneficiaries

Fig. 3

Modification of the SES-adjusted Association between PM2.5 and Cause-specific Mortality by Urbanicity and SES. For each cause of death, we examined effect modification using interaction terms for urbanicity and SES respectively in the SES-adjusted models. Results are expressed as the risk ratio and 95% CIs per 10 μg/m3 increase in 12-month average PM2.5. Abbreviations: IHD (ischemic heart disease), CBV (cerebrovascular disease), CHF (congestive heart failure), COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), SES (socio-economic status), PM2.5 (fine particles, aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm). Note: Subgroups follow the same order as in figure legend

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