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Table 4 DALYs and age-standardized DALY rate for occupational risk factors, 1990, and 2017 in China, with mean percentage change for 1990–2017

From: The disease burden attributable to 18 occupational risks in China: an analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

Occupational risksDALYs, in thousandAge-standardized DALY rate (per 100,000)
19902017Percentage change (%)19902017Percentage change (%)
Asthmagens194.5(144.5–244.7)114.8(79.8–158.3)− 41.0(− 54.5--20.9)17.39(12.85–21.92)6.28(4.34–8.68)− 63.9(− 72.6--50.8)
Carcinogens766.0(590.4–959.8)1650.5(1260.4–2089.6)115.5(87.2–147.1)78.63(60.59–98.03)80.49(62.23–101.39)2.4(− 11.2–17.94)
 Arsenic40.4(15.7–66.8)101.8(38.3–167.1)152.2(123.1–185.8)4.05(1.58–6.69)4.77(1.80–7.83)17.9(4.4–33.7)
 Asbestos124.8(85.7–190.1)442.1(304.7–589.5)254.3(135.1–375.6)14.57(10.06–22.02)22.94(15.85–30.54)57.5(6.0–108.6)
 Benzene20.1(5.6–33.9)17.1(5.0–28.7)− 14.7(− 27.7–8.8)1.56(0.44–2.65)1.01(0.29–1.69)− 35.5(− 45.8--17.8)
 Beryllium1.8(1.5–2.1)4.1(3.3–4.9)133.7(107.5–160.1)0.18(0.15–0.21)0.19(0.16–0.23)9.3(− 2.3–20.5)
 Cadmium3.9(3.3–4.6)10.0(8.3–11.9)152.9(121.3–187.0)0.39(0.33–0.46)0.47(0.39–0.56)18.2(4.4–34.0)
 Chromium7.5(6.6–8.4)19.9(17.2–22.8)166.8(135.6–201.4)0.75(0.66–0.84)0.93(0.81–1.07)24.8(10.4–40.6)
 DEE84.3(74.2–95.5)220.9(190.9–253.5)161.9(129.2–191.1)8.45(7.44–9.55)10.35(8.97–11.87)22.5(7.5–35.9)
 Formaldehyde19.9(15.2–24.8)16.5(13.0–20.7)− 17.2(− 31.4--0.3)1.64(1.26–2.03)0.91(0.72–1.12)− 44.6(− 52.9--35.0)
 Nickel45.5(8.9–101.5)104.0(20.8–231.5)128.7(102.0–158.4)4.56(0.90–10.19)4.87(0.98–10.84)7.0(− 5.4–20.8)
 PAHs26.0(22.0–29.8)68.4(57.1–80.0)163.1(129.3–198.0)2.60(2.21–2.99)3.21(2.68–3.76)23.1(7.9–39.1)
 Silica396.2(259.5–548.7)673.4(395.7–961.1)70.0(37.3–99.9)40.31(26.54–55.58)32.12(19.09–45.62)− 20.3(− 35.6--6.1)
 Sulfuric acid13.0(5.4–24.3)20.9(8.8–39.0)60.3(45.9–78.7)1.30(0.54–2.43)0.97(0.41–1.82)− 25.4(− 32.2--16.9)
 Trichloroethylene0.1(0.0–0.2)0.4(0.1–0.8)244.5(145.3–313.0)0.01(0.00–0.02)0.02(0.00–0.04)66.8(18.3–99.6)
Ergonomic factors2245.6(1544.9–3125.8)2010.5(1372.6–2791.7)− 10.5(− 20.4--0.5)196.81(135.56–275.34)107.48(74.45–147.55)− 45.4(− 50.4--39.5)
Injuries8670.1(7298.9–10,281.7)4557.6(3748.9–5420.7)− 47.4(− 57.8--34.4)705.89(594.31–836.67)268.58(221.03–319.58)− 62.0(− 69.4--52.5)
Noise1000.0(678.0–1427.0)1742.2(1186.1–2455.4)74.2(69.6–79.4)95.44(65.10–134.64)90.92(61.88–128.17)− 4.7(− 7.0--2.4)
PGFs5281.4(4504.0–6043.7)3984.6(3368.8–4617.9)−24.6(− 30.6--12.9)660.90(557.37–760.57)216.42(181.99–253.00)−67.2(−69.6--62.2)
All occupational risks18,157.6(15,945.0–20,433.3)14,060.2(12,023.0–16,125.8)− 22.57(− 30.3--14.0)1755.07(1543.63–1971.82)770.18(662.71–885.84)− 56.1(− 60.4--51.3)
  1. UIs Uncertainty intervals, DALYs Disability-adjusted life year, PGFs Particulate matter, gases, and fumes, DEE Diesel engine exhaust, PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons