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Table 2 Characteristics (percent distribution) of the mother-child pairs according to allergic outcomes

From: Maternal phthalate exposure and asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 552 children aged 5 years; a prospective cohort study

Characteristicsn (%)
552 (100)
Wheeze within the last 2 years (n = 552)Self-reported asthma(n = 535)Doctor-diagnosed asthma (n = 530)Self-reported rhinitis (n = 532)Self-reported eczema (n = 487)
Yes
n = 123
No
n = 429
Yes
n = 25
No
n = 510
Yes
n = 27
No
n = 503
Yes
n = 49
No
n = 483
Yes
(57)
No
(430)
Sex
 Boy278 (50.4)54.549.248.051.270.449.567.348.243.952.3
 Girl274 (49.6)45.550.852.048.829.6*50.5*32.7*51.8*56.147.7
Birth weight (grams)
  < 250013 (2.4)4.11.98.0*2.2*7.42.24.12.30.02.6
 2500–4000435 (78.8)74.880.056.080.066.779.171.479.973.780.2
  > 4000104 (18.8)21.118.236.0*17.8*25.918.724.517.826.317.2
Preterm birth (<week 37)
 Yes24 (4.3)8.9*3.0*8.04.17.44.26.14.11.84.7
 No528 (95.7)91.197.092.095.992.695.893.995.998.295.3
Maternal age at delivery (years)
  < 2550 (9.1)13.07.98.09.211.18.96.19.515.89.3
 25–29193 (35.0)35.834.740.034.729.635.236.734.626.336.3
 30–34210 (38.0)33.339.432.038.437.038.436.737.936.837.4
  ≥ 3599 (17.9)17.917.920.017.622.217.520.418.021.117.0
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 2059 (10.7)10.6*10.7*0.011.211.1*10.7*12.210.114.010.9
 20–25286 (51.8)42.354.548.052.422.253.738.852.638.653.7
  ≥ 25207 (37.5)47.2*34.7*52.036.566.7*35.6*49.037.347.435.3
Parity
 Nulliparous321 (58.2)65.056.264.057.551.957.761.257.863.258.4
 Multiparous231 (41.8)35.043.836.042.548.142.338.842.236.841.6
Smoking during pregnancy
 Yes16 (2.9)3.32.84.02.93.73.06.12.71.82.8
 No536 (97.1)97.797.296.097.096.397.093.997.398.297.2
Education level at pregnancy
 High school or less144 (26.3)38.3*23.0*20.0*26.5*33.325.734.725.733.326.8
 High school + 1–4 years279 (51.0)41.753.636.051.548.151.051.050.050.951.4
 High school + > 4 years124 (22.7)20.0*23.4*44.0*22.0*18.523.314.324.315.821.8
Breastfeeding (weeks)
  < 445 (9.4)9.19.213.6*9.3*9.19.213.3*9.4*9.810.2
 4–1988 (18.4)27.317.736.416.827.317.733.316.817.618.7
  > 19345 (72.2)63.673.150.0*73.9*63.673.153.3*73.8*72.571.1
Family history of asthma/allergy
 Yes309 (56.0)61.854.368.055.463.055.672.9*54.9*69.656.5
 No243 (44.0)38.245.732.044.637.044.427.145.130.443.5
Family history of asthma
 Yes115 (20.8)30.1*18.2*48.0*18.6*44.4*18.9*30.6*18.8*26.319.5
 No437 (79.2)69.981.852.081.455.681.169.481.273.780.5
Pets (inside and outside)
 Yes231 (42.4)50.040.252.0*42.3*59.3*41.7*63.843.437.042.6
 No314 (57.6)50.059.848.057.740.758.336.256.663.057.4
  1. *p-value < 0.05 when testing for significant differences in distribution between the group with an allergic outcome and the group without (using t-test for continuous and chi2-test for categorical variables)