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Table 4 Maternal median (25–75 percentile) osmolality adjusted urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations according to mother/child characteristics

From: Maternal phthalate exposure and asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 552 children aged 5 years; a prospective cohort study

CharacteristicsnMEP Median and 25-75th percentile (ng/ml)ΣMBPi + n Median and 25-75th percentile
(ng/ml)
ΣDEHPm Median and 25-75th percentile
(ng/ml)
ΣDiNPm Median and 25-75th percentile
(ng/ml)
Sex
 Boy27822.2 (9.6–55.0)44.7 (27.1–71.4)22.0 (13.9–33.2)9.9 (5.8–19.7)
 Girl27419.6 (8.8–51.9)43.7 (26.3–69.2)21.8 (12.5–31.9)8.6 (5.1–15.8)
Birth weight (grams)
  < 25001313.4 (6.8–20.9)37.7 (30.2–44.1)20.2 (15.8–22.3)7.2 (6.3–19.2)
 2500–400043522.6 (9.8–51.9)45.2 (27.2–68.5)22.3 (13.5–33.0)9.0 (5.4–17.6)
  ≥ 400010416.6 (8.0–65.6)42.5 (25.7–73.5)20.8 (12.3–30.1)10.8 (5.1–20.4)
Preterm (<week 37)
 Yes2417.8 (9.9–72.5)40.9 (28.8–70.1)20.8 (12.0–27.2)9.5 (5.7–20.7)
 No52821.4 (9.1–52.4)44.5 (26.6–70.0)22.0 (13.5–32.9)9.2 (5.4–18.3)
Age at birth (year)
  < 255020.6 (8.9–37.7)44.3 (24.3–70.0)20.4 (14.7–33.0)9.3 (4.5–14.3)
 25–2919319.8 (9.8–47.7)40.5 (26.1–66.2)21.2 (11.2–31.3)9.1 (5.1–19.3)
 30–3421020.5 (8.9–55.0)45.0 (26.6–70.4)21.7 (14.2–32.5)9.3 (5.7–15.5)
  ≥ 359925.2 (8.8–94.8)52.1 (35.7–75.1)24.0 (13.8–34.7)9.2 (6.4–19.7)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 205926.1 (10.6–55.0)49.1 (30.2–72.5)*22.0 (15.0–29.3)*7.4 (5.0–19.3)*
 20–2528619.5 (8.7–46.9)40.4 (22.4–63.0)20.4 (11.6–31.0)8.4 (5.0–14.8)
  ≥ 2520725.4 (9.3–65.4)49.9 (30.5–75.4)*24.0 (15.8–39.8)*11.5 (6.6–20.5)*
Parity
 Nulliparous32120.9 (10.4–50.0)44.9 (27.0–69.4)21.8 (13.4–33.0)9.5 (5.4–19.2)
 Multiparous23121.4 (8.6–61.5)43.9 (26.5–70.1)22.0 (13.5–32.1)9.1 (5.2–15.8)
Smoking
 Yes1626.2 (7.9–69.2)48.2 (25.8–76.4)24.1 (15.7–35.8)11.4 (4.7–20.4)
 No53621.0 (9.3–52.5)44.4 (26.7–69.7)21.9 (13.5–32.4)9.2 (5.4–18.3)
Education level years
 Low14425.4 (10.6–65.6)48.5 (29.7–75.6)24.0 (13.5–39.0)10.2 (6.0–20.7)
 Intermediate27919.8 (8.8–55.8)43.0 (25.3–66.9)21.4 (13.5–31.0)9.0 (5.5–16.8)
 High12419.8 (9.1–39.6)45.8 (29.4–73.2)21.7 (12.9–31.6)8.5 (4.9–19.1)
Breastfeeding
  < 4 weeks4517.0 (9.0–53.2)48.1 (36.1–75.2)24.8 (13.7–33.4)10.3 (7.0–21.2)
 4–19 weeks8830.3 (14.2–91.4)49.9 (31.5–67.5)20.7 (15.2–32.8)12.8 (7.0–19.9)
  > 19 weeks41920.4 (9.3–49.2)43.3 (25.7–70.1)21.8 (13.1–32.1)8.6 (5.1–17.2)
Family history of asthma/allergy
 Yes30919.5 (8.4–49.9)44.4 (27.2–68.5)21.6 (13.0–32.4)9.7 (5.3–20.3)
 No23923.2 (10.9–56.9)44.2 (26.0–71.1)22.3 (13.6–32.8)8.4 (5.4–14.8)
Family history of asthma
 Yes11522.2 (8.1–54.1)41.2 (26.7–68.5)21.2 (13.0–32.4)9.0 (5.1–20.0)
 No43720.9 (10.2–52.5)45.2 (26.6–70.0)22.1 (13.5–32.5)9.2 (5.6–18.0)
  1. Abbreviations: MEP monoethyl phthalate; ΣMBPi + n Monobutyl phthalate (i + n); ΣDiNPm sum of Di-isonyl phthalate metabolites; ΣDEHPm sum of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites
  2. *p < 0.05 using Mann-Whitney test for difference between characteristics with 2 parameters, Kruskal-Wallis test for characteristics with more than 2 parameters