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Table 1 Characteristics of children in Bangladeshi prospective cohort who provided serum antibody samples at age 5 years

From: Evaluating the effects between metal mixtures and serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children: a prospective birth cohort study

Variable Child sex
OverallMalesFemales 
N = 502(n = 255)(n = 246)p-value
Maternal Education, n (%)
 illiterate52 (10.4%)29 (11.4%)23 (9.3%)0.76
 primary187 (37.3%)94 (36.9%)93 (37.8%) 
  ≥ secondary262 (52.2%)132 (51.8%)130 (52.8%) 
Total duration of breastfeeding, median (IQR), months24.0 (19.0, 36.0)24.0 (18.0, 36.0)24.0 (24.0, 36.0)0.41
WFA−1.3 (−2.0, − 0.6)− 1.2 (− 1.9, − 0.6)− 1.5 (− 2.1, − 0.8)0.005
Antibody concentration at age 5, median (IQR), IU/mL
 Diphtheria0.06 (0.03, 0.12)0.06 (0.03, 0.13)0.06 (0.03, 0.12)0.78
 Tetanus0.21 (0.09, 0.40)0.22 (0.10, 0.42)0.20 (0.09, 0.37)0.12
Arsenic (W-As), median (IQR), μg/L
 pregnancy3.2 (1.2, 23.7)3.2 (1.2, 24.2)3.3 (1.2, 22.3)0.70
 toddlerhood7.1 (0.8, 47.7)7.9 (0.9, 47.7)6.9 (0.7, 49.4)0.41
 childhood2.7 (0.4, 38.4)3.6 (0.4, 37.2)2.5 (0.4, 39.1)0.31
Manganese (W-Mn), median (IQR), μg/L
 pregnancy565.0 (344.8, 796.0)565.0 (350.5, 789.0)569.5 (340.0, 814.0)0.62
 toddlerhood741.0 (322.5, 1478.5)776.5 (358.0, 1560.0)710.0 (308.0, 1410.0)0.38
 childhood748.6 (304.3, 1483.7)721.3 (322.1, 1512.0)806.5 (252.6, 1422.6)0.91
Lead (B-Pb), median (IQR), μg/dL
 pregnancy3.1 (1.6, 5.6)3.2 (1.5, 5.2)3.0 (1.6, 5.8)0.78
 toddlerhood6.4 (4.3, 10.0)6.5 (4.4, 9.5)6.0 (4.0, 10.4)0.77
 childhood4.7 (2.3, 7.0)5.0 (2.9, 7.9)4.6 (2.3, 6.5)0.05
  1. Note: p-values Pearson chi-squared or Kruskal-Wallis rank sum differences in distribution of variable between sexes; IQR interquartile range (25th, 75th percentiles); IU international units; W- drinking water; WFA weight-for-age z-score