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Table 4 Standardized factor loadings (λ) of observed (measured) exposures (W-As, W-Mn, and B-Pb) on the latent Metals variable and of observed outcomes (diphtheria and tetanus) on the latent Antibody variable. Factor loadings are relevant to SEMs diagrammed in Fig. 2

From: Evaluating the effects between metal mixtures and serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children: a prospective birth cohort study

VariablesOverall (n = 498)Girls (n = 246)Boys (n = 255)
λ (95% CI)p-valueλ (95% CI)p-valueλ (95% CI)p-value
Latent Metals
 Arsenic
  pregnancy0.59 (0.52,0.66)<.0010.6 (0.5,0.7)<.0010.59 (0.5,0.69)<.001
  toddlerhood0.34 (0.25,0.43)<.0010.32 (0.19,0.46)<.0010.35 (0.21,0.49)<.001
  childhood0.43 (0.35,0.52)<.0010.36 (0.23,0.48)<.0010.5 (0.39,0.61)<.001
 Manganese
  pregnancy0.01 (−0.1,0.11)0.91−0.08 (− 0.24,0.08)0.340.05 (− 0.1,0.2)0.53
  toddlerhood−0.24 (− 0.35,-0.14)<.001− 0.26 (− 0.41,-0.11)0.001−0.27 (− 0.41,-0.12)<.001
  childhood−0.18 (− 0.27,-0.08)<.001−0.17 (− 0.3,-0.03)0.02−0.19 (− 0.33,-0.05)0.01
 Lead
  pregnancy−0.81 (− 0.88,-0.75)<.001− 0.79 (− 0.88,-0.7)<.001−0.82 (− 0.92,-0.72)<.001
  toddlerhood−0.69 (− 0.77,-0.61)<.001−0.72 (− 0.84,-0.6)<.001−0.67 (− 0.77,-0.56)<.001
  childhood−0.71 (− 0.77,-0.64)<.001−0.81 (− 0.9,-0.71)<.001−0.63 (− 0.73,-0.53)<.001
Latent Antibody
 Diphtheria0.78 (0.71,0.85)<.0010.78 (0.71,0.85)<.0010.71 (0.65,0.77)<.001
 Tetanus0.75 (0.62,0.89)<.0010.75 (0.62,0.89)<.0010.84 (0.68,1)<.001
  1. Note: Standardized loadings are restricted to values between 0 to 1.0, which are interpreted as correlations