Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in the Old Order Amish

Clinical characteristicMean (SD) or N (%)
Across allMenWomen
Number of participants615 (100%)346 (56.3%)269 (43.7%)
Age at examination (years)43.5 (13.9)42.5 (13.7)44.9 (14.1)
Current smokers71 (11.5%)71 (20.5%)0 (0%)
Ever smokers (not currently smoking)89 (14.4%)89 (25.7%)0 (0%)
Never smokers455 (74.0%)186 (53.8%)269 (100%)
Body mass index (kg m−2)26.3(4.1)25.5 (3.2)27.3 (4.8)
Hypertension (diagnosed)82 (13.3%)42 (12.4%)40 (14.9%)
High cholesterol (self-report)103 (16.8%)53 (15.3%)50 (18.6%)
Diabetes mellitus (self-report)5 (0.8%)3 (0.9%)2 (0.7%)
Myocardial infarction (self-report)6 (1.0%)4 (1.2%)2 (0.7%)
Vascular measures
 Baseline brachial artery diameter (BAD; mm)3.7 (0.7)4.1 (0.4)3.1 (0.4)
 Flow-mediated dilation (FMD; %)10.5 (5.8)8.4 (4.9)13.2 (5.9)
 Shear stress (cm S−1 mm−1)22.2 (7.5)20.5 (6.1)24.4 (8.6)
 Pre-occlusive blood velocity (cm S−1)7.8 (6.5)9.5 (6.7)5.6 (5.5)
 Post-occlusive blood velocity (cm S−1)79.5 (23.4)82.9 (21.5)74.9 (25.3)
 Response to shear stress (cm S−1 mm− 1)20 (6.6)18.9 (5.5)21.5 (7.5)