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Table 3 Associations between ln-transformed measured breast milk or estimated children’s p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE levels and BMI z-score at 42 months of age. Statistically significant associations are presented in bold

From: Estimated postnatal p,p’-DDT and p,p’-DDE levels and body mass index at 42 months of age in a longitudinal study of Japanese children

 Model 1aModel 2b
 p,p’-DDT p,p’-DDE p,p’-DDT p,p’-DDE 
 β (95% CI)pβ (95% CI)pβ (95% CI)pβ (95% CI)p
Measured breast milk concentrations
 All−0.04 (− 0.23, 0.15)0.7060.08 (− 0.08, 0.24)0.320− 0.05 (− 0.24, 0.14)0.6290.07 (− 0.09, 0.24)0.360
 Girlsc0.11 (− 0.15, 0.36)0.4130.20 (− 0.03, 0.43)0.0850.10 (− 0.16, 0.35)0.4780.20 (− 0.02, 0.43)0.078
 Boysc−0.18 (− 0.46, 0.09)0.190− 0.01 (− 0.24, 0.21)0.901−0.21 (− 0.49, 0.07)0.141−0.05 (− 0.28, 0.18)0.680
Children’s area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) (0–6 months)
 All−0.02 (− 0.21, 0.17)0.8470.09 (− 0.07, 0.25)0.252− 0.03 (− 0.21, 0.16)0.7900.09 (− 0.07, 0.25)0.276
 Girlsc0.15 (− 0.10, 0.40)0.2480.23 (0.01, 0.45)0.0440.13 (−0.12, 0.38)0.3130.23 (0.01, 0.46)0.042
 Boysc−0.19 (− 0.47, 0.09)0.174− 0.02 (− 0.24, 0.20)0.870− 0.21 (− 0.49, 0.07)0.138− 0.05 (− 0.28, 0.18)0.668
Children’s area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) (6–12 months)
 All0.05 (− 0.12, 0.23)0.5470.14 (− 0.01, 0.29)0.0750.06 (− 0.11, 0.24)0.4800.15 (− 0.01, 0.30)0.060
 Girlsc0.21 (−0.02, 0.47)0.0690.26 (0.06, 0.47)0.0110.19 (−0.05, 0.43)0.1130.28 (0.06, 0.49)0.012
 Boysc−0.12 (− 0.38, 0.14)0.3770.02 (− 0.21, 0.24)0.871− 0.10 (− 0.37, 0.17)0.4540.01 (− 0.21, 0.24)0.904
Children’s area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) (12–24 months)
 All0. 06 (− 0.10, 0.22)0.4740.14 (− 0.01, 0.28)0.0670.09 (− 0.08, 0.26)0.3090.16 (0.01, 0.32)0.034
 Girlsc0.19 (−0.02, 0.39)0.0700.24 (0.05, 0.43)0.0120.19 (−0.04, 0.42)0.1010.27 (0.06, 0.48)0.010
 Boysc−0.09 (− 0.34, 0.15)0.4580.03 (− 0.19, 0.25)0.810− 0.05 (− 0.31, 0.21)0.6880.04 (− 0.18, 0.27)0.702
  1. aAdjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI
  2. bAdjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, fish intake (g/year), and total breastfeeding duration
  3. cGirls (n = 134); boys (n = 156)