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Table 1 OPE parent compounds, major urinary metabolites, and select uses

From: Predictors and reproducibility of urinary organophosphate ester metabolite concentrations during pregnancy and associations with birth outcomes in an urban population

Parent Metabolite Select Uses
Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) Flame retardants; adhesives and sealants; finishing agents; paint and coating additives; building/construction materials; electrical and electronic products; fabric, textile, and leather products; foam seating and bedding products [47]
Tris(1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) Flame retardant; polyurethane foam (e.g., foam seating) [14]
Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) Flame retardant; PVC plasticizer; nail polish; paint and coating additive; additive in polymer mixtures used in electronic enclosure applications; lubricants and greases; photographic supplies, film, and photo chemicals; rubber products; foam seating [48,49,50]
2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP) Flame retardant; PVC plasticizer; food-packaging plastics, wrappings, and films. Foam seating and bedding products. Uses in the European Union include PVC, rubber, polyurethanes, photo films, paints, pigment dispersions, adhesives and textile coatings [51, 52]
Isopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate Isopropylphenyl-phenyl phosphate (ip-PPP) Flame retardant; polyurethane foam (e.g., foam seating) [53, 54]
Tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate Tert-butyl-phenyl phenyl phosphate (tb-PPP) Flame retardant; polyurethane foam (e.g., foam seating) [5, 55]